School of Information and Library Science
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


INLS 237 - Spring 1999 - 9:30 - 10:45 am Mondays and Wednesdays

What's New?



April 24    Please see Reviews of Books, Journals and Websites for a list of the items class members chose to work on.

March 20 (First Day of Spring)    Please see Projects and Teams for the Spring Semester for a list of what folks in the class are working on.

March 1    Please see A Framework for Social Marketing Programs for some notes about applying marketing concepts to social marketing.

Feb. 28    Please see Questions about the Patterns of Demand and Their Underlying Causes.

Feb. 21    Please see What's New for a description of the class activity for today. Essentially, you are asked to analyze an organization with a web presence from a marketing perspective. Some useful Case Analysis questions are:
  • What's the current situation? Who are the customers and the markets that the organization seems to be targeting?
  • Is there evidence of strategic planning by the organization? What is it? What are the broad goals and more specific objectives?
  • Can you detect how the organization is segmenting its markets?
  • What is the organization's current distribution system?
  • What kind of promotional activities is it using?
  • Who are the competitors?
  • What environmental factors are relevant? What is going on that's supportive? What problems might need to be overcome?
  • What do you see as the current market issues for the organization? Do you have any recommendations for the top brass?

Feb. 16    A good link to information about the semantic differential, mentioned in Chapter 6, is Osgood's semantic differential. You will have to use the Om index to take you to the particular link. If we do our exercise we may use this set of ten adjective pairs or we can make up our own, for example:
pleasant - unpleasant
hard - soft
afraid - unafraid
valuable - worthless
love - hate
fast - slow
boring - interesting
relevant - irrelevant
exciting - dull
appealing - unappealing
fascinating - mundane
not needed - needed

Feb. 15    Please see "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy," for some notes taken from Michael Porter. Our speaker, John MacMullen mentioned some of Porter's concepts in his discussion of competitive intelligence and I thought it might be useful to get a bit more of the flavor of Porter's ideas.

On Wednesday, Feb. 16, we will be talking about Positioning. If we have time I have an exercise we might do using the agencies presenting at the Career Fair.

Feb. 2    Please see Designation of Groups and Market Audit Exercise.

Jan. 24   : We discussed the continuum from products to services and back again last week. Today we'll formalize the distinction between products and services and talk a bit about some components we might consider in an "integrated service management approach."

First some basic differences between products and services:

  • Customers do not own services.

  • The delivery of a service is the delivery of an intangible; it's a performance.

  • Customers are more involved in the production of a service.

  • Other people may form part of the service (Ex., other customers on a bus or in a library or computer lab).

  • There is greater variability in operational inputs and outputs -- harder to offer consistency and to control quality.

  • Many services are difficult for customers to evaluate -- Services may emphasize "experience attributes" (like durability, quietness, personal treatment) or "credence attributes" (like surgery, technical work).

  • Typically inventories are absence -- services are perishable, can't be saved.

  • Time is relatively more important as most services are delivered in real time with customers physically present.

  • Delivery systems may involve both electronic and physical channels.

When we talk about marketing products, we address the 4 Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Christopher Lovelock, another marketing guru who has written a number of textbooks often focused on service marketing, offers the 8Ps of integrated service management -- that is, the eight kinds of decisions managers have to make when marketing services. They are:
  • Product elements -- all the components of the service performance that create value for customers.

  • Place and time -- management deicsions about when, where, and how to deliver services to customers.

  • Process -- the steps that need to occur in a defined sequence to deliver the service.

  • Productivity and quality -- Productivity is how efficiently service inputs are transformed into outputs that add value for customers. Quality is the degree to which a service satisfies customers by meeting their needs, wants, and expectations (the three are different).

  • People - Personnel (and sometimes other customers) who are involved in service production.

  • Promotion and education -- All the communication activities and incentives designed to build customer preference for a specific service or service provider.

  • Physical evidence -- Visual or other tangible clues that provide evidence of service quality.

  • Price and other costs of service -- Expenditures of money, time, and effort that customers incur in purchasing and consuming services.

Send me an email if you have any questions or comments.

Page rev. 3/20/2000.