Although the questionnaire was designed to collect
data separately for ALA-accredited master's in library science and
ALA-accredited master's in information science degrees, only one school
provided data that could be used. Several schools did report data
for ALA-accredited master's -- information science but later changed
their data submission when they found that those data had been reported
erroneously. This resulted in the one school reporting for the accredited
IS master's category. Accordingly, in the interest of simplicity of
reporting, all ALA-accredited master's data, whether LS or IS, were
reported under "ALA Accredited Master's" rather than differentiated.
In subsequent sections of the report mention will be made of data
being requested for five program levels in order to have that statement
agree with the tables that follow, although in reality data for six
program levels had been originally sought.
Schools were requested to provide totals as well as
separate counts for full-time and part-time students, differentiated
by gender. For part-time students, FTE (Full Time Equivalent) figures
were also requested as well as the total FTE enrollment. The directions
called for each school to use its institution’s method for computation
of FTE or, if no such method existed, to use the following formula:
Although on-campus and off-campus students were to
be included in the data submitted, an additional line on the questionnaire
also asked for separate FTE data for off-campus students.
II-1-a-1 is a summary table presenting the number and percentage
of full-time and part-time students, divided by gender, for each of
the seven program levels as well as total enrollment figures. Additionally,
the percentage of full-time versus part-time students is presented.
The total enrollment of 19,984 is up 5.7 percent over the 18,901 reported
last year and 4.1 percent over the 19,206 reported for Fall 1996.
ALA-accredited master’s programs account for the majority (64.1 percent)
of ALA School enrollment. Students in “other master’s” degree programs
account for 6.9 percent of total enrollment. The growing number of
schools offering a doctoral degree (27) report a total enrollment
for those programs of 693 students or 3.5 percent of total enrollment.
Post-master’s students comprise less than 0.6 percent of total enrollment
while bachelor’s degree students comprise 7.6 percent. The sizable
change in enrollment for the bachelor's degree in 1998 (1,516) compared
to the 809 students reported for 1997 is due in part to an increase
in the number of students in these programs but is also attributable
to a reporting error for 1997 and 1996. In those years the bachelor's
enrollment at Drexel had been erroneously reported under "other
undergraduate." When this error became known Drexel later reported
a correction for those years. Drexel's enrollment for 1997 of 367
bachelor's students when added to the previously reported total resulted
in a corrected total enrollment of 1,176. Using this corrected figure
the 1998 enrollment still represents a 28.9 percent increase. Much
of this increase is the result of the 112.5 percent rise in the bachelor's
degree program at Florida State.
All degree levels, except the bachelor’s degree, have
the majority of their students in a part-time status. This includes
more than two-thirds of all ALA-accredited master’s (69.9 percent)
and “other master’s” (69.1 percent) degree students. Doctoral programs
come closest to an even distribution between full-time and part-time
with 53.4 percent in a part-time status.
When distribution by gender is examined, females are
found to comprise over three-quarters (78.6 percent) of ALA-accredited
master’s enrollment. Gender distribution becomes more even for students
in “other master’s” degree programs with 52 percent male enrollment.
At the doctoral level the gender division shows females continue in
the majority by 13.4 percentage points.
Eleven of the 56 ALA schools offer a bachelor’s degree.
II-1-c-1a provides school-by-school enrollment figures. It shows
that of the 1,516 students pursuing a bachelor’s degree 64.8 percent
are enrolled at one of two schools: Syracuse (528) or Drexel (455).
The four schools with the highest enrollments for the bachelor's degree
(Syracuse, Drexel, Florida State, and Pittsburgh) account for 90.2
percent of all enrollment at this level.
II-1-c-2a reports ALA-accredited master’s enrollment (number)
for each school. It illustrates the wide range of program sizes across
the 56 ALA schools – from the five largest programs, San Jose (562),
Kent State (512), Dominican (465), Florida State (455), and Simmons
(452) to the six schools with fewer than 90 students: Hawaii (89),
British Columbia (88), St. John’s (84), Clark Atlanta (69), Dalhousie
(59) and, Southern Mississippi (56).
The distribution of full-time to part-time students
reported in that table also shows wide variation among the schools.
Four schools have more than three-fourths of their students in a full-time
status (Montréal (90.4), Dalhousie (84.7), McGill (82.9), and, North
Carolina – Chapel Hill (78.4) Four others schools approach that level
Western Ontario (73.7), California – Los Angeles (71.7), British Columbia
(69.3), and Michigan (69.0). It is of note that all eight schools
with the highest percentage of full-time enrollment have two-year
master’s programs although they do not represent all schools with
two year programs. Nineteen schools (33.9 percent) have more than
80 percent of their ALA-accredited master's enrollment as part-time.
The schools with the highest percentage of part-time enrollment are
Queens (95.1), Long Island (94.8), San Jose (94.7), St. John's (92.9),
North Carolina – Greensboro (92.8), and Missouri (91.4).
The variation in full-time versus part-time enrollment
can have a noticeable impact on the size of enrollment when that enrollment
is viewed in terms of FTE (Full-Time Equivalent). When viewed from
that perspective who the largest schools are changes considerably.
The program with the largest ALA-accredited master's enrollment in
terms of FTE is Kent State (324.5) followed by Texas (314.9), South
Carolina (258.6), San Jose (255) and Indiana (251.3). The six smallest
programs in terms of FTE reside at Clarion (59.8), Hawaii (56.3),
Clark Atlanta (53.7), Dalhousie (53), Southern Mississippi (41.4),
and St. John's (41.1).
Fifteen ALA schools report enrollment for “other master’s”
degrees in addition to their ALA-accredited master’s (Table
II-1-c-3a). The mean enrollment figure of 91.8 students per school
is heavily skewed by the large enrollments of three schools: Drexel
(327), Pittsburgh (286), and Syracuse (232). The enrollment of these
three schools constitutes 61.4 percent of all “other master’s” enrollment.
Except for Indiana (121) the other 11 ALA schools offering the "other
master's" have enrollments under 100 students with four schools
reporting fewer than 20 students (Albany (18), Southern Connecticut
(15), Alabama (9), and Southern Mississippi (8)).
Post-master’s programs historically have had relatively
low enrollments and Table
II-1-c-4a confirms that this continues. Of the 26 schools reporting
enrollment in a post-master’s program only two schools (Florida State
(21) and (Drexel (14)) had more than 10 students in their programs.
The high percentage of part-time students in these programs (77.1
percent (Table II-1-c-4a)) results in the mean FTE for these programs
(2.3) being very low (Table
II-1-c-4b). Nearly half (27) of the 56 ALA schools offer a doctoral
II-1-c-5a). The 693 doctoral students enrolled in these programs
in Fall 1998 represent a 6.5 percent increase in doctoral student
enrollment in Fall 1997. These doctoral students are distributed quite
unevenly across these schools. The doctoral program at Pittsburgh
is by far the largest with 90 students followed by the programs at
North Texas (68) and Florida State (55). No other school has more
than 50 doctoral students. Nearly half the schools (12) have enrollments
of less than 20 students.Although nearly half (46.6 percent) of all
doctoral students are full-time, this distribution of full-time to
part-time varies widely from school to school. Indeed, a few schools
report all, or most, of their doctoral enrollment as full-time while
for others the reverse is true. In some cases, individual school percentages
are heavily influenced by small enrollments.
II-1-e provides the number of FTE off-campus students each ALA
school had registered for the 1998 Fall term. Nearly two-thirds (36)
of the schools had off-campus enrollment with several schools having
a very sizable off-campus enrollment. By far the largest off-campus
program is at South Carolina (198.4) followed by Emporia (137), Indiana
(119.5), South Florida (111) Arizona (102.9), Florida State (100),
and Wayne State (97). No other program had an off-campus FTE enrollment
over 60. Seven schools had off-campus enrollment of less than ten
FTE students. Twenty schools reported they had no off-campus students
or elected not to report these data. The total FTE off-campus enrollment
of 1612.6 represents an increase of 11.1 percent over Fall 1997 enrollment
and offsets considerably the decline in enrollment from the 1744.6
reported for Fall 1996. When the mean is calculated to include only
those schools with some off-campus enrollment, the mean enrollment
is 44.8 FTE students although that figure is skewed by the few schools
with high off-campus enrollments.
Course Enrollments (Table II-2)
Schools were requested to report the number of students
enrolled in courses or sections of courses during the 1998 Fall term.
Enrollments were reported in increments of five students. It was requested
that individual study and reading courses not to be included in these
II-2-a-1 reports course and section enrollment distributed across
the 11 enrollment groups for courses offered in Fall 1998 by each
ALA school. The number of courses offered that term ranged from 10
(Arizona) to 84 (Indiana) with a mean of 34.6 courses offered per
school. Ten schools (17.9 percent) offered less than 20 courses that
term while nine schools (16.1 percent) offered more than 50 courses.
The majority of courses have enrollments of 6-10,
11-15 and 16-20 students. These three course enrollment groups account
for 50.9 percent of all courses offered. The total number of courses
with enrollments of 36-40, 41-45 and 46-50 students was relatively
small (44, 40 and 29 respectively) when compared to the frequencies
of other enrollment groups, although these numbers do reflect approximately
a 30 percent increase in the number of courses offered in these larger
enrollment ranges. Despite this increases courses offered in these
two larger enrollment groups accounted for only 5.8 percent of all
courses offered. This compares to 57 courses offered with a class
size of more than 50 students. The questionnaire requested schools
to comment on courses with enrollments over 50 students. From these
II-2-a-2) it becomes apparent that larger courses are often used
to present core material, distance education or undergraduate courses.
As mentioned above, schools were asked not to include
independent studies or individual reading courses in their submission
of course enrollment data. Instead, they were asked to report separately
the total number of students enrolled in those courses. Table
II-2-a-3 shows the number of independent study or reading courses
reported by each ALA school. This table reveals the wide variation
in the number offered from one each at Clarion, Dominican and Pratt
to 108 at San Jose.
Degrees and Certificates Awarded (Table
For Table II-3 schools were asked to report the total number of degrees
and certificates awarded during the 1997-98 academic year, including
summer sessions, for five degree categories:
- ALA-Accredited Master’s
- Other Master’s
In supplying these data, schools were requested to
report the number of degrees and certificates aggregated by gender
and ethnic origin of their graduates. In reporting ethnic origin
the following five categories, as defined by the US Department of
Labor, were to be used.
Canadian schools were not required to provide ethnic
data, although they could elect to do so, however, they were required
to provide totals.
II-3-a reports the number of degrees awarded at each program level
distributed by gender and ethnic origin. A total of 5,835 bachelor’s,
master’s, post-master’s, and doctoral degrees were awarded by ALA
schools during 1997-98. Female graduates accounted for 73.7 percent
of all degrees awarded. This male/female distribution varies considerably
among the different degree programs by percentage, with females in
the majority for three of the five degree programs. From a high of
78.2 percent of ALA-accredited master’s degrees awarded to females,
their percentage drops to 74.6 and 73.5 percent for the doctoral and
post-master's degrees respectively. The two degrees that have males
as the majority of their graduates (“other master’s” (57.8) and bachelor’s
(58.9)) are those most likely to be associated with information science
The figures in Table II-3-a also demonstrate that
the graduates of programs offered by ALA schools continue to be predominately
White (76.3 percent). Blacks are the next most represented ethnic
group (4.4 percent) followed by Asian or Pacific Islanders (3.0 percent)
and persons of Hispanic origin (2.1). Blacks accounted for 11.1 percent
of the recipients of doctoral degrees and 5.9, 5.1, and 4.0 percent
of post-master’s, “other master’s,” and ALA-accredited master’s degrees
respectively granted in 1997-98.
For each degree program the number of degrees and
certificates awarded varied widely from school to school. For the
nine schools that awarded bachelor’s degrees in 1997-98 (Table
II-3-c-1) Syracuse (87) and Pittsburgh (76) conferred more than
half (58.2 percent) of the 280 degrees conferred. Only Drexel (58)
and Florida State (31) approached that level. None of the other schools
had more than seven graduates of their bachelor's program.
At the ALA-accredited master’s degree level (Table
II-3-c-2) 5,024 degrees were awarded in 1997-98 compared to 5,068
in 1996-97, continuing the decline previously noted for 1995-96.
Only one school awarded 200 degrees -- Simmons (200). This contrasts
with one school (South Carolina) awarding 240 degrees in 1996-97 and
four schools awarding more than 200 degrees in 1995-96. In 1997-98
an additional four schools awarded more than 150 degrees: Florida
State (161), Indiana (158), Texas (156) and Kent State (153). Five
schools conferred less than 40 degrees (British Columbia (38), Alberta
(36), Dalhousie (35), St. John's (35), and Puerto Rico (18)) while
an additional nine granted between 40 and 50 degrees.
The 13 schools that awarded the 434 “other master’s”
degrees varied widely in the number of graduates (Table
II-3-c-3). Pittsburgh (123) had by far the most graduates followed
by Syracuse (87), and Drexel (81). These three schools conferred the
majority (67.1 percent) of the “other master’s” degrees. Five schools
conferred less than ten "other master's" degrees (NC Central
(8), NC Greensboro (6), Alabama (3), Southern Connecticut (3), and
Post-master’s degree numbers (Table
II-3-c-4) reflect the limited enrollment in these programs at
the 15 schools offering them. The number of degrees awarded varied
only slightly from school to school. Only two schools (South Carolina
(6) and Pittsburgh (5)) conferred more than three post-master’s degrees.
Sixty-three doctoral degrees were conferred by twenty schools during
1997-98. This figure is up from the 52 doctoral degrees awarded in
1996-97. The number of degrees awarded ranged from 6 by Florida State
and Rutgers to one at three schools (Table
Enrollment by Gender and Ethnic Origin
Enrollment figures for the 1998 Fall term were requested
for each of the program levels defined for Table II-1 divided by gender
and ethnic origin using the ethnic origin classifications for Table
Table II-4 is similar to Table II-3 in that both deal
with distributions by gender and ethnic origin, however, Table II-3
addressed these distributions for graduates of degree programs, while
Table II-4 addresses enrolled students. Table
II-4-a reports on the number of students enrolled in ALA schools
for each program level distributed by gender and ethnic origin categories.
These figures show that students are predominately White (69.6 percent)
with the 1057 Black students representing the next largest ethnic
group (5.3 percent) which compares to 4.6 percent in Fall 1997. While
a relatively small percentage increase it is sizable for one year
and reflects the 21.1 percent increase in Black enrollment in Fall
1998. It is uncertain whether the large number of students for whom
no ethnic information was provided (2,971) had any effect on these
percentages. That would depend upon whether the ethnic distribution
of students at those schools that did not provide ethnic data is similar
to those that did.
Enrollment at the bachelor's degree (Table
II-4-c-1) represents the most even distribution of students across
the different ethnic categories. At the 11 schools offering a bachelor's
degree White students constitute 67.7 percent of the enrollment followed
by Black students with 11.1 percent. Asian or Pacific Islanders comprise
an additional 7.2 percent of enrollment for this degree with Hispanic
students 3.6 percent. Except for Hispanic enrollment these percentages
come the closets to reflecting the distributions of these different
ethnic groups in the US population. Those estimated figures are presented
in the next paragraph which addresses ALA-accredited master's enrollment.
The ethnic distribution of students pursuing the ALA-accredited
master’s degree is presented for each school in Table
II-4-c-2. For the
schools that reported ethnic data, the 9,682 White (non Hispanic)
students constitute 79.9 percent of the students in those programs1.
Black (non-Hispanic) students make up 4.9 percent of that enrollment,
roughly a two-fifths of their 12.1 percent of the November 1, 1998
US population estimated by the US Census Bureau2
to be Black. Hispanic students of any race and Asian or Pacific Islanders
(non-Hispanic) comprise 3.2 and 2.3 percent respectively of ALA-accredited
master’s enrollment compared to their 11.4 and 3.7 percents respectively
of the estimated November 1, 1998 US population. Based on the comparison
of their percentage of the population to enrollment in ALA-accredited
master’s programs, students of Hispanic origin continue to be the
most under-represented, followed by Blacks.
When the ethnic composition of each school’s ALA-accredited
master’s enrollment is examined, some interesting distributions are
evident. Schools with a higher number of Black students (more than
25) are limited to programs located at historically Black universities
and in, a number of instances, at universities situated in large
metropolitan areas . (Pratt has the highest Black enrollment (67)
comprising 24.5 percent of its ALA-accredited master's population.
There are seven schools in the next tier of Black enrollment (more
than 25 Black students) -- Clark Atlanta (49), North Carolina Central
(45), Florida State (38), Wayne State (38), Catholic (30), Queens
(29), and Louisiana State (28). The notable school here is Florida
State which increased its enrollment of Black students by 65.2 percent.
Seven of the 51 ALA schools (13.7) reporting ethnic data indicated
their Black student enrollment was either zero or one student.
This is an improvement over the 13.7 percent of schools
at this level for Fall 1997 and the 21.6 percent reported for Fall
Figures for the 382 Hispanic students pursuing the
ALA master’s degree are heavily skewed in that 29.6 percent (113)
of those students are enrolled at Puerto Rico which reports having
only Hispanic students among it's non-international student body.
Following Puerto Rico, Texas (40) and San Jose (32) are the schools
having the largest Hispanic enrollments. Three schools (South Florida
(22), Florida State (19), and Pratt (15) have at least 15 Hispanic
students. Three other schools (North Texas, Queens, and Texas Woman's)
report having from 10 to 14 Hispanic students. There are twelve schools
with no Hispanic enrollment and another eight with only one Hispanic
student each. Taken together these 20 schools represent 39.2 percent
of the schools reporting ethnic data.
For the 13 of 15 schools that reported ethic data,
White students constitute 61.5 percent of total enrollment.3
Black students account for 5.9 percent of the "other master's"
student body with Asian or Pacific Islanders accounting for a surprising
5.1 percent of enrollment given their much lower percentage for the
ALA-accredited master's. Hispanic students are under-represented in
"other master's" program even more severely than they were
for the ALA-accredited degree representing only 1.5 percent of total
enrollment. This is primarily accounted for by none of the five schools
with the largest Hispanic enrollments for the ALA-accredited master's
degree offering the "other master's" degree. Drexel reports
the largest Black enrollment with 23 students followed closely by
North Carolina Central with 21. Pittsburgh has the largest Asian or
Pacific Islanders enrollment with 29 students. Drexel follows with
The ethnic distribution of post-master’s students
parallels that of the ALA-accredited master’s degree students with
80.3 percent of the post-master’s students White.
At the doctoral level (Table
II-4-c-5) the 651 students at schools reporting ethnicity White
students constitute 58.3 percent of student enrollment.4
The lower percentage of White student enrollment at this program level
is not accounted for by increased enrollment of other US ethnic groups,
but rather by the 28.4 percent of doctoral students who are international
students. The 38 Black students comprise 5.9 percent of doctoral enrollment
while Asian or Pacific Islanders are 2.3 percent, and Hispanics 2
percent. Overall, the involvement of non-White ethnic groups is minimal
(10.8 percent) at the doctoral level. As was the case with the ALA-accredited
master’s degree, the distribution of non-white ethnic groups among
the 23 schools with doctoral programs reporting ethnic enrollment
data is uneven. Pittsburgh with ten students has the largest enrollment
of Black doctoral students. The schools with the next highest Black
doctoral enrollment are Florida State and Rutgers with six students
each. Except for North Texas (4) no other school had more than two
Black doctoral students. Eight schools report enrollment of only one
Black doctoral student while nine schools report none. No school
reports having more than two Hispanic doctoral students with three
schools reporting two students each (California - Los Angeles, Florida
State, and Texas). The remaining 20 schools reporting ethnic data
have either one or no Hispanic doctoral students.
In-State/In-Province and Out-of-State/Out-of-Province
Students (Table II-5)
For Table II-5 schools were requested to report the
number of students officially enrolled in the Fall 1998 term according
to their in-state/in-province and out-of-state/out-of-province status
for each of the program levels defined for Table II-1.
Tables II-5-c-1 to II-5-c-7 report enrollments for
each program level on a school-by-school basis. At the bachelor’s
degree level (Table
II-5-c-1) information is less than ideal because one of the two
schools with the largest bachelor’s programs (Syracuse) did not identify
the geographic origin of their bachelor’s students. Those Syracuse
students account for 34.8 percent of all students in bachelor’s programs
at the 11 schools. For the remaining ten schools reporting residency
status enrollment at the bachelor's level reflect the believed typical
enrollment at the level -- a large proportion of students from in-state
(82.2 percent). This is particularly given that eight of these ten
schools are public universities.
At the ALA-accredited master’s degree level (Table
II-5-c-2) the data continue to reveal the local or regional nature
of enrollments at most schools. For the 52 schools that reported the
requested data, 81.4 percent of their students are from in-state/in-province.
Only one school (Emporia, 53.1 percent) report more than half of its
ALA-accredited master’s students were from out-of-state. Five additional
schools (Rhode Island (49.7 percent), Kentucky (47.6 percent), Alberta
(42.7 percent), Dalhousie (42.4 percent), and Tennessee (40.1 percent))
indicated that at least 40 percent of their students were from out-of-state/out-of-province.
Nineteen schools have less than 10 percent of their ALA-accredited
master’s enrollment from out-of-state including Queens (1.3 percent)
and Puerto Rico (0.9 percent) who report less than 2 percent of their
enrollment consists of out-of-state students.
Data for "other master's" programs encountered
a similar problem to that which occurred with bachelor's degree enrollment
-- one of the larger programs (Syracuse (16.8 percent of total enrollment))
did not report the in-state/out-of-state status of its students. The
percentage of in-state “other master’s” students (Table
II-5-c-3) (70.1 percent) is somewhat lower than it is for the
ALA-accredited master’s degree. The residency status of post-master's
II-5-c-4) returns to the higher percentage of in-state/in-province
enrollment (82.6 percent) exists for post-master’s degree programs
that reported these data. It is quite similar to the level for the
Doctoral programs appear to reflect what one might
expect of a research degree -- the willingness of students to travel
out-of-state/out-of-province to pursue their education. At the doctoral
II-5-c-5) the percentage of students in an in-state/in-province
status is 58.1 percent. One should note that this figure also made
be affected by the ability at some schools for students to be able
to change their residency status while enrolled in a program -- something
particularly more likely during a program of longer duration. For
the doctoral degree, for the 24 schools that provided residency data,
eight schools (Alberta, Arizona, Drexel, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan,
Pittsburgh, and Wisconsin – Madison) have at least 50 percent of their
enrollment from out-of-state. More than half of the schools (13) with
doctoral programs reporting residency data have at least 40 percent
of their doctoral students in an out-of-state/out-of-province status.
Four schools report 20 percent or less of their doctoral students
are from out-of-state/out-of-province (Texas Woman's (20),Tennessee
(14.3), Long Island (3.3), and British Columbia (0)).
International Students (Table II-6)
For Table II-6 schools were requested to indicate
the number and gender of their international students officially enrolled
in the Fall 1998 term for each of the program levels defined for Table
The 945 international students at all program levels,
when compared against the enrollment figures reported in Table II-1,
constitute 4.6 percent5
of students attending the 56 ALA schools. These 945 students represent
a 32.3 percent increase from the 714 international students reported
for Fall 1997 and well above the 841 reported for Fall 1996. It is
likely that this year's increase in enrollment is due to the improvement
of the Asian financial crisis which likely attributed to much of the
decline the previous year. When individual program levels are examined,
ALA-accredited master’s programs are found to have 2.5 percent of
their students from other countries. A major change in international
student demographics occurs with other program levels. The 256 international
students pursuing “other master’s” degrees constitute 18.6 percent
of that enrollment. This increased presence of international students
is even more pronounced at the doctoral level where the 184 international
students comprise slightly more than a quarter (26.6 percent) of doctoral
student enrollment. It is only at the doctoral level where international
student enrollment decline does not occur. While international student
participation in limited number of LIS bachelor’s degree programs
is minimal compared to their enrollment in the master's and doctoral
programs it did witness a major increase for 1998 from the 5 students
in these programs in Fall of 1997 to 74 for the Fall of 1998 -- a
1,480 percent increase. International student participation in post-master's
programs continues to be low with a total enrollment of 5 this year.
Several schools stand out for their number of international
students enrolled in their various degree programs. Syracuse has the
highest number of international students (176) followed by Pittsburgh
with 147. No other school has as many as 50 international students.
Texas has the highest ALA-accredited master's international student
enrollment (17) followed by Michigan (16), Illinois (15) and Louisiana
State and Catholic with 14 students each. Eight other schools have
ten or more international students in their ALA-accredited master's
programs. Syracuse has by far the highest international student enrollment
for an "Other Master's" program with 103 students followed
by Pittsburgh with 86. No other school approaches this level with
Drexel having the next highest international student enrollment with
14 students. Similarly, the bachelor's enrollment at Syracuse is the
highest with 44 international students followed by Drexel (19). No
other program has more than 7 international students in its bachelor's
program. Pittsburgh has the largest international student body at
the doctoral level with 46 students followed distantly by Syracuse
(19), Rutgers and Florida State (15 each), Texas, (13), North Texas
(11), and Illinois (10). The remaining doctoral programs have seven
or fewer international students.
International Students’ Country of Origin
For Table II-7 schools were asked to report the country
of origin of their international students enrollment for the 1998
Fall term for each of the program levels defined for Table II-1.
These data are arranged first by continent then sub-arranged
alphabetically by name of the country (Table
II-7-a-1). Asia, covering a wide area of the world ranging from
the Middle East to the Far East, has been further sub-divided into
four regions to allow for more detailed analysis.
As might be expected, international students at ALA
schools represent all continents except Antarctica. Asia is the continent
that accounts for the majority of international students, providing
slightly more than two-thirds (67.3 percent). When the regions of
Asia are examined, the Far East/Southeast Asia region is found to
contribute the greatest percentage of international students (51.3
percent). South Asia is a distant second with 10.9 percent. European
countries contribute 11.3 percent of international student enrollment
while South America continues to have minimal representation in LIS
programs with only 3.8 percent. Equally small is Africa with 5.2 percent.
Australia has the lowest level of international students at ALA schools
with 0.2 percent.
When the number of students from individual countries
is examined, it becomes readily apparent that China and South Korea
are the countries providing the greatest number of students (169 and
102 respectively). South Korea replaces India as the country providing
the second largest number of international students last year. Two
other countries, India and Taiwan with 87 students from each, form
the next tier of countries of origin. Combined these four countries
contribute nearly half (47.1 percent) of all international student
Although bachelor's degree enrollment is relatively
small, but rising, two countries are responsible for more than a quarter
(28.4 percent) of that enrollment -- South Korea with 12 students
and India (9). The two countries with the next largest representation
in bachelor's programs are the Dominican Republic (6) and Malaysia
(5). Although China provides by far the most students pursuing the
ALA-accredited master’s degree (67), China and Taiwan are nearly equal
in the number of students of their students enrolled in “other master’s”
programs (54 and 52 respectively).South Korea provides more doctoral
students (37) followed closely by China (33). No other country sends
more than 17 doctoral students.
Enrollment by Age and Gender (Table II-8)
For Table II-8 schools were asked to report Fall 1998
enrollment divided by gender across nine age groups for each of the
program levels defined for Table II-1.
II-8-a provides a summary for all program levels by age group
and gender. Although the data in this table are incomplete due to
the relatively large number of schools that were unable to provide
age data (15.5 percent of the students could not be classified by
age), they nonetheless provide some insight into the age distribution
of students at ALA schools.6
For the ALA-accredited master’s and “other master’s” programs, the 25-29
age group by far has the greatest number of students (24.8 and 32.2
percent respectively). The 45-49 age group had the most post-master’s
students (20 percent), although these students are distributed rather
evenly across the 25-54 age range.
One would expect that in many graduate programs the
20-24 age group would represent a sizable portion of master's program
enrollment given the number of students entering graduate education
directly from their undergraduate study. This is not the case, however,
with the ALA-accredited master's degree. Here that age group ranks
sixth in frequency with only the over 50 age groups having fewer students.
It would appear, however, that the "Other Master's" programs
are somewhat more attractive to younger students. Here the 20-24
age group ranks third in frequency (with 13.8 percent of the students)
following the 25-29 and 30-34 age groups respectively which have the
highest frequencies for these programs. Overall, doctoral students
are quite evenly divided among the six age groups 25-54. Except for
the 30-34 age group with 112 students the other age groups have between
87 and 97 students.
Students by Gender and Highest Degree Held
This table is not currently in use. The table was
last used in 1980.
Students by Undergraduate Major, Gender
and Program Level (Table II-10)
This table is not currently in use. The table was
last used in 1980.
Scholarship and Fellowship Aid (Table II-11)
Data for the number and amount of scholarship or other
non-work-related financial aid awarded in fiscal year 1997-98 were
requested for each of the seven program levels as defined for Table
II-1. Each school was asked to separate the data by the gender of
awardee. The instructions for compiling the data stated that awards
directly administered by the school (regardless of whether the funds
were from the school, the parent institution, federal or non-federal
external sources) were to be included but awards (including assistantships
and work/study) made by outside sources directly to the student were
to be excluded.
Given the difference in the value of the Canadian
and US dollars, separate means are provided for Canadian and US schools.
Similarly, with the costs associated with enrolling in a public university
generally being quite different from those at a private university,
it is reasonable to suspect that the amount of financial aid awarded
by these different types of schools would also differ. Accordingly,
for US schools, separate means are reported for public and private
universities as well as a combined mean.7
II-11-a provides a summary of aid awarded for each of the seven
program levels for the 1997-98 fiscal year. The total value of awards,
$6,089,604, represents a 5.8 percent decrease in funding over that
reported last year. The amount of money invested in doctoral students
this year comes as quite a surprise from that of previous years. In
those years nearly one-third of all scholarship and fellowship aid
was awards to doctoral students. This year that percentage has declined
to 19.4 percent. This decline is not due to an overall decrease in
the dollars available for this aid but rather an decline of $763,998
(39.2 percent) in fellowships and scholarships awarded at the doctoral
level. For the same period the totals for all other degree levels
rose. Given the heavy investment schools make in their doctoral programs,
in terms of human and other resources this comes as a surprise.
It is believed that a sizable amount of this decline is due to the
reduction of aid for doctoral programs from Federal sources. If this
is true it reveals the dependence that schools had developed for this
source of assistance. This change in funding has resulted in a decline
in the number of awards from 158 in 1996-97 to 129 in 1997-98 (an
18.4 percent decline). This has also been reflected in a decline
in the average size of an award from $12,326 in 1996-97 to $9,174
in 1997-98 (a 25.6 percent decline). This compares to an average $3,729
for ALA-accredited master’s program students and $4,701 for “other
master’s” students. The ALA-accredited master’s average increased
2.8% over last year while the average award to “other master’s” students
rose 142 percent. The small percentage increase in ALA-accredited
master's fellowships and scholarship support was not due to a small
increase in the total value of the awards (in fact they rose by $459,900
(11.1 percent), but rather to a parallel increase in the number of
awards made from 1,151 to 1,235 (an 7.3 percent increase). The enormous
increase the average size of "Other Master's" awards was
due to two factors -- an increase of $60,254 (a 27.8 percent) combined
in a 47.3 percent reduction in the number of awards made (from 112
down to 59).
II-11-c-2 reports scholarship and fellowship aid for the ALA-accredited
master’s degree. The mean number of awards given by Canadian and
US schools is very similar (22.7 vs. 23.6 respectively). The mean
amount awarded was $3,206 per Canadian school compared to $2,117 per
US public university and $4,422 per US private university. Another
notable difference in the mean figures on this table is the mean number
of awards given by private US universities (36.5) versus public (20.7).
The figures in Table
II-11-c-3 for Other Master’s is perhaps most informative for the
number of schools that did not report any scholarship or fellowship
aid for students pursuing these degrees. Only eight of 15 schools
reporting enrollment in these programs (53.3 percent) indicate any
funding for these students. This is, however, one more school than
last year, and it accompanies the sizable increase in the value of
these awards mentioned previously.
Financial support of post-master students continues
to be severely limited with only four of the 28 schools (14.3 percent)
with a post-masters program indicating that they provide scholarship
or fellowship support (Table
II-11-c-5 reports on scholarship and fellowship aid for doctoral
students. The notable difference in the mean figures on this table
is the mean number of awards given by Canadian universities (10.3)
versus US (6.2) despite. In previous years the higher average number
of awards given by Canadian universities was offset by the much higher
value of the awards of US universities. This year that difference
was no longer true. A doctoral student at a Canadian university receives
an average award of $9,476 compared to $8,978 for the average doctoral
award at a US university. The average size of a scholarship or fellowship
award from a private US university is s $13,231 compared to a similar
average award at a public university of $8,721. It should be noted,
however, that only one of four US private universities submitted data
thus possibly skewing the resulting figure.
Assistantships (Table II-12)
Data were requested for the number and value of assistantships
awarded by each school, divided by the gender of the awardee, using
the program level definitions of Table II-1 for students enrolled
in Fall 1998. Please note the difference between the figures in this
table which are for the Fall term versus Table II-11 for scholarships
and fellowships which reported the value of those awards for the entire
Similar to the reporting for Table II-11 the presentations
of Table-II-12 include a calculation of separate means for Canadian
and US schools with a further division of US schools into public and
II-12-a provides a summary of assistantships awarded for each
of the seven program levels. The total value of awards, $10,640,013,
represents a 14.5 percent increase in funding over that reported last
year and 48.2 percent over that for Fall 1996.
II-12-c-2 reports assistantships awarded to students in ALA-accredited
master’s degree programs. The mean number of awards given by Canadian
and US schools is quite different (11 vs. 20.9 respectively), unlike
the nearly equal mean number of awards for scholarships and fellowships
(22.7 vs. 23.6 respectively). Table
II-11-c-2 reveals that scholarships and fellowships on average
continue to be awarded at a far higher number by US private schools
compared to US public schools (mean 36.5 vs. 20.7). The reverse is
true for assistantships where US public universities awarded an average
of 23.1 assistantships per school compared to 10 by US private schools.
Although the mean figures for scholarships/fellowships and assistantships
are higher this year than last, this pattern has been present fir
several years. Differences in the mean size of an assistantship awarded
by a Canadian school versus a US school continues. The mean value
of an assistantship awarded by a Canadian school is $1,268 compared
to $9,040 for US schools ($9,050 public; $8,825 private).
The figures in Table
II-12-c-3 for “other master’s” degrees, as was the case with scholarship
and fellowship aid, is informative for the increase in the number
of schools that reported assistantship funding for these students.
This year ten of 15 schools (67 percent) reported offering assistantships
to "other master's" compared to 47 percent in Fall 1997
and Fall 1996.
Similarly, as was the case for scholarship and fellowship
aid, assistantship support of post-master students is extremely limited
with only three of the 26 schools (11.5 percent) that have a post-master’s
program indicating they provide assistantships (Table
II-12-c-5 reports the number and value of assistantships awarded
doctoral students. Although the mean number of assistantships awarded
by Canadian and US universities is nearly equal (7 and 7.8 respectively),
the value of the average assistantship at a Canadian school is considerably
lower -- $3,227 compared to $13,573 at US schools. Difference in the
average number of assistantships awarded to doctoral students as US
public and private universities is very noticeable (8.5 vs. 2.5 respectively).
That difference between the two types of universities is reversed
when the value of the average assistantship is examined. Doctoral
assistantships at US public universities average $13,293 contrasted
with similar awards at private universities averaging $19,563. This
difference between public and private assistantship funding in terms
of the size of the average award is similar to that observed for doctoral
scholarships and fellowships.
Tuition and Fees (Table II-13)
Tuition and fee data for the 1998 Fall term were requested.
These data included
- total cost of a degree obtained without transfer credit
- cost of tuition for only one credit
In reporting fees schools were asked not to include
those fees associated with particular courses or labs. Data were requested
separately for in-state/in-province and out-of-state/out-of-province
students for each of the seven program levels defined for Table II-1.
A 1998 article in Library Journal8
provided some information on tuition and fees based on the Library
and Information Science Education Statistical Report 1998. The
appearance of these data in the article alerted some schools to the
fact that the data they had reported in the ALISE Statistical Questionnaire
for that year, and in some cases for previous years, was incorrect.
As a result a special effort was made this year to check the tuition
and fee data reported on this year's questionnaire were accurate by
checking them again school catalogs and school Web pages. Where reported
data did not appear to agree with those sources the schools were contracted
for data clarification. As a result it is believed that the data
reported here are more accurate than before, but as a result it may
differ noticeably from data reported for previous years.
II-13-c-2 presents the full degree and one-credit costs for the
ALA-accredited master’s degree. Differences between in-state and
out-of-state charges are valid only for public universities in the
United States. Private universities charge the same fee regardless
of residency status 9.
As expected, the cost for the degree in the US is generally higher
at private schools with a mean cost of $20,607 compared to $6,673
for in-state and $16,556 for out-of-state students at public universities.
The least expensive ALA-accredited master’s programs at private universities
are provided by Clark Atlanta ($14,708), Dominican ($16,020), and
Long Island ($17,280). The most expensive are offered by Drexel ($25,824)
and Catholic ($27,129). As might be expected the cost of obtaining
an ALA-accredited master's degree at the nine private US universities
are the highest of the 49 US schools when compared to in-state tuition
levels at US public universities. The only exception to this is Michigan
where the in-state tuition and fees is at the level of the mean cost
of a degree at a private university.
Six schools (North Carolina Central ($3,040), North
Carolina – Greensboro ($3,046), Puerto Rico ($3,325), Texas Woman's
($3,436), Southern Mississippi ($3,497), and Oklahoma ($3,783)) are
able to offer the ALA-accredited master’s degree to their in-state
students for under $4,000 while a total of 15 schools can provide
this degree to in-state residents for less than $5,000. The most expensive
programs for in-state students are at Michigan ($20,016), Pittsburgh
($13,368), and Wisconsin – Madison ($11,022).
Out-of-state students are able to obtain the ALA-accredited
master’s degree for under $10,000 at three schools (Southern Mississippi
($6,513), Louisiana State ($6,825), and Queens ($8,367). There are
nine public universities that have out-of-state tuition and fees exceeding
$20,000. Of these the most noticeable are Wisconsin –Madison ($33,970)
and Michigan ($40,600) -- both well above the mean cost of this degree
for both out-of-state students at public universities ($16,556) and
students at private universities ($20,607). Viewed from the financial
aspect only it appears that private universities are competitive in
their cost to degree with a number of public universities in competition
for out-of-state master's students.
II-13-c-5 provides tuition and fee information for the doctoral
degree. Schools were requested to report only the cost for course
work. The mean cost to an in-state doctoral student at a US public
university is $11,860. The least expensive programs for in-state doctoral
students are provided by Alabama ($4,026) and Texas Woman’s ($4,043).
In-state doctoral students encounter the highest cost to degree is
at Michigan ($42,964). That figure is more than $16,000 higher than
the cost at the next most expensive program (Pittsburgh, $26,736).
For out-of-state students, the doctoral programs with the lowest degree
costs are at Alabama ($10,824), Texas Woman's ($13,031), and Emporia
($13.158). The most expensive programs for out-of-state doctoral
students are at Michigan ($73,840) and Pittsburgh ($53,520). These
costs are well above the out-of-state mean for US public universities
($26,796) and nearly $13,000 higher than the next most expensive doctoral
program (Tennessee, $40,656).
Again, doctoral programs at private US schools are
considerably more expensive than similar programs at most public universities.
Only four of the 28 doctoral programs in the US are offered by private
universities (Drexel, Long Island, Simmons, and Syracuse). Their mean
cost is $30,212, with a range from $21,132 at Simmons to $43,290 at