SILS iSchool

12 Sep 2018

Value Added | daily

Class Schedule

Basics | sessions 01-05

22 AUG | intro
27 AUG | clients
29 AUG | servers
05 Sep | networks
10 Sep | basics lab

Web Development | sessions 06-11

12 Sep | HTML - practice | theory | tags | links | HTML terms | 02.01 | next session

17 Sep | presentational layer
19 Sep | working with layers
24 Sep | behavior layer
26 Sep | images & design
01 Oct | website lab

Document Markup | sessions 12-14

03 Oct | object layers
08 Oct | tools that read markup
10 Oct | document markup lab

Spreadsheets | sessions 15-19

15 Oct | spreadsheets
17 Oct | formulas & functions
22 Oct | data display
 18 Oct | Fall Break 
24 Oct | database tools
29 Oct | spreadsheets lab

Relational Database | sessions 20-26

31 Oct | relational databases
05 Nov | tables
07 Nov | relationships
12 Nov | input & output
14 Nov | SQL
19 Nov | complex queries
26 Nov | databases lab
 21 Nov | Thanksgiving 

Presentation | sessions 27-30

28 Nov | presentation design
03 Dec | presentation delivery
05 Dec | presentation lab
12 Dec | 0800-1100 | final in class presentation

Having created an HTML page, let's consider what we did by considering the theory behind the page.

HTML describes the structure of pages

What is a markup language?

  • It's a collection of codes, embedded in a document, that explain the meaning or desired formatting of the marked text
  • It's a way of describing, using instructions buried in the document, what the document is supposed to look like
  • Every electronic text processing tool uses some kind of markup language, though you may not necessarily be able to see the commands

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HTML follows the same three-part-instruction model we used in command line situations

UNIX/LINUX ⇒ command argument value
HTML ⇒ tag attribute value

So an HTML tag is a form of a command, but this tag (command) is directed at the browser.

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HTML Elements and tags

Two definitions that say the same thing

  1. An HTML element usually consists of a start tag and end tag, with the content inserted in between
  2. An element is composed of content that is to be displayed and tags that tell the browser what structure the content is to be understood to be.

<tagname> content </tagname>

For instance,
these tags
tell the content of the element how to display.
Thus, the element
tells the browser to show the word "content" as bold, or


For another instance,
these tags
tell the content of the element how to display.
Thus, the element
tells the browser to show the word "content" as italicized, or


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Attributes and values of tags

Some elements - such as a Heading 4
can take
attributes that define the properties of the element - such as a style
values - such as centering

Thus, the element
<h4 style="text-align:center">centering a Heading 4</h4>
tells the browser to show the words "centering a Heading 4" in Heading 4 style and centered, or

centering a Heading 4

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They follow rules about nesting and placement.

In general, both sides of the content must be balanced and consistent.

The element
<h3 style="text-align:right"><i> the marked-up content</i></h3>

tells the browser to
open heading 3 in a style in which the text is displayed to the right of the line
open italics
the marked-up content
close italics
close heading 3
in mirrored order.

Or, as it will display

the marked-up content

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HyperText Document structure

  1. The <!DOCTYPE> declaration must be the very first thing in your HTML document, before the <html> tag. The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not an HTML tag; it is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in.
  2. <html> the outermost element, indicates that the enclosed text is html and therefore must use an html-capable program to open it
  3. <head> the first element inside <html> is the HEAD
    • a container for information about the document; this is where one might place meta-information about the document as well as the <title>page title</title>
    • remember, balanced and consistent; one must close the HEAD, </head>
  4. <body> the BODY element contains all the text and other material that is to be displayed
    • and, of course, the document is balanced as it is closed, </body>
  5. and consistent, as HTML is closed as well - </html>

So the structure should look like

<!DOCTYPE html version>
<!-- this is a comment about the DOCTYPE, the html version of which should be specified -->
        <title>page title</title>

        <p>a paragraph in the body of the page</p>
        <!-- this is a comment -->

Although we can get away without putting end tags on elements (because many browsers are lax about it), we will adopt the habit of always closing any tag we open so that we are compliant with current and future standards.

        <title> INLS161-001 Fall 2018 Information Tools | Sample Page </title>
        <meta name ="description" content ="sample page for INLS161-001 Fall 2018 Information Tools"  />
        <meta name ="keywords" content ="information literacy, information tools, information, tasks, hard coding"  />
        <meta http-equiv ="content-type" content ="text/html; charset=UTF-8"  />
        <link rel ="stylesheet" type ="text/css" href ="notyet.sample-style.css"  />

Metadata typically define document title, styles, links, scripts, and other meta information.

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Getting started with HTML

We'll sort of follow this W3C intro, doing the things he recommends as we go. You may, if you wish, use his guidance to create your own good code for your own new pages

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