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Main Section Introduction and Goals
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Main Section State Email Policies

Project Background : Bibliography

Archival Issues and Preservation
Electronic Records Management
Email Management and Use
Information Management Behaviors
Legal Issues and Policies
Personal Information Management Systems and Interface Design

Text file

Archival Issues and Preservation

Bikson, T. K. , and E. J. Frinking. 1993. Preserving the present . The Hague: SDU.

Cheng, G. 2000. The shifting information landscape: Re-inventing the wheel or a whole new frontier for librarians. Australian Library Journal 49, (1) (February 2000): 17.

Cook, T. 1991. The archival appraisal of records containing personal information: A RAMP study with guidelines.

Davis, M., S. King, N. Good, and R. Sarvas. 2004. From context to content: Leveraging context to infer media metadata. New York, NY, USA: ACM Press,

Duranti, L., T. Eastwood, and H. McNeil. The preservation of the integrity of electronic records. Vancouver, BC: School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of British Columbia, ,

Horky, D. W. . 1998. Archival perspectives on the evolution and organizational impact of E-mail system technologies. Master's thesis., University of Manitoba.

Levy, D. M. 2001. Scrolling forward: Making sense of documents in the digital ageArcade Publishing.

Lyman, P., and Varian, H. R. How much information. 2003.

Ross, S. 2000. Changing trains at wigan: Digital preservation and the future of scholarship. NPO Preservation Guidance Occasional Papers,

Stoker, D. 1999. Wanted - an innovative and visionary evidence-based/Knowledge management librarian. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 31, (2) (June 1999): 67.

Taylor, R. S. 1986. Value added processes in information systems. Norwood, NJ: Ables.

———. 1982. Value-added processes in the information life-cycle. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 33, : 341-346.

Thibodeau, K. 2001. Building the archives of the future: Advances in preserving electronic records at the national archives and records administration. D-Lib Magazine 7, (2) (February 2001),

Electronic Records Management

Associated Press. 1999. FOI staff anticipates E-mail records queries. (4 October 1999).

Bantin, P. 2000. Strategies for managing electronic records: Lessons learned from the indiana university electronic records project. Paper presented at ECURE 2000 Conference: “Preservation and Access for Electronic College and University Records,", Phoenix, Az,

———. 1998. Developing a strategy for managing electronic records: The findings of the indiana university electronic records pro. American Archivist 61, (2) (Fall 1998): 328.

———. 1998. Strategies for managing electronic records: A new archival paradigm? an affirmation of our archival traditions?”. Archival Issues 23, (1): 17.

Bantin, P., and G. Bernbom. Indiana university electronic records project 1995-1997. ,

Cox, R., James Williams, and Sochats, K. W. . Functional requirements for evidence in recordkeeping. ,

Duranti, L. 1999. Concepts and principles for the management of electronic records, or records management theory is archival diplomatics. Records Management Journal 9, : 153.

Fletcher, P. T. 1990. Electronic records management in state government: Planning for the information age. ARMA Records Management Quarterly 24, (4) (October 1990): 26,

Hackett, J., and S. Gibson. 2001. Getting ready for electronic implementation.

McClure, C. R., and T. Sprehe. 1998. Analysis and development of model quality guidelines for electronic records management on state and federal website. ,

———. 1998. Guidelines for electronic records management on state and federal websites. , bvg

McDonald, J. 1995. Managing records in the modern office: Taming the wild frontier. Archivaria 30, (Spring 1995): 70.

National Historical Publications and Records Commission. NHPRC: Electronic records initiatives. Available from

———. NHPRC: Research issues in electronic records. Available from

———. NHPRC: Electronic records. Available from

Sellen, A., and R. H. R. Harper. 2002. The myth of the paperless office. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Steemson, M. 1997. Managing records or managing media: Information boom or bust. Records Management Bulletin: 17.

Sutton, M. J. D. . 1996. Document management for the enterprise: Principles, techniques, and applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. E-mail retention guidelines. Available from

Underwood, W. E. . 1999. Analysis of presidential electronic records: Final report. ,

Email Management and Use

Guidelines for managing E-mail2000. . Prarie Village, KA: ARMA International.

Balter, O. 2000. A keystroke level analysis of email message organization. Paper presented at CHI 2000, ,

———. 1997. Strategies for organizing E-mail. Bristol, UK: INSPEC, .

Bearman, D. 1994. Managing electronic mail. Archives and Manuscripts-the Journal of the Australian Society of Archivists 22, (1) (May 1994): 28.

Becker, K., and S. N. Ferreira. 1996. Virtual folders: Database support for electronic messages classification. ,

Bikson, T. K. , and S. A. Law. 1993. Electronic mail use at the world bank: Messages from users. The Information Society 9, (2): 89.

Bridges, A. E. , and Clement, R. T. . 1997. Crossing the threshold of rocket mail: E-mail use by U.S. humanities faculty. Journal of Academic Librarianship 23, (March 1997): 109-117.

Chu, H. 1994. E-mail in scientific communication. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 15th National Online Meeting, .

Collin, S. 1999. Integrating E-mail. Boston: Digital Press.

Dabbish, L., R. E. Kraut, S. Fussell, and S. Kiesler. 2005. Understanding email use: Predicting action on a message. Paper presented at Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ,

Dabbish, L., G. Venolia, and J. J. Cadiz. 2003. Marked for deletion: An analysis of email data. Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA: ACM Press,

D'Souza, P. V. . 1992. Electronic mail in academic settings: A multipurpose communications tool. Educational Technology 32, (3) (March 1992): 22.

Ducheneaut, N., and V. Bellotti. 2001. Email as habitat: An exploration of embedded personal information management. Interactions 8, (5): 30-38,

Enneking, N. E. . 1998. Managing E-mail: Working toward an effective solution. Records Management Quarterly (July 1998): 24,

Fang, K. 1998. An analysis of electronic mail usage. Computers in Human Behavior 14, (2) (May 1998): 349.

Fulk, J., and G. DeSanctis. 1995. Electronic communication and changing organizational form. Organizational Science 6, (5): 338.

Garton, L., and B. Wellman. 1995. Social impacts of electronic mail in organizations: A review of the research literature. Communication Yearbook 18, : 434.

Gwizdka, J. 2004. Email task management styles: The cleaners and the keepers. Paper presented at Extended Abstracts of the 2004 Conference on Human Factors and Computing Systems, ,

———. 2002. Reinventing the inbox: Supporting the management of pending tasks in email. Paper presented at CHI 2002 Extend Abstracts on Human Factors in Computer Systems, ,

Julian, Alicia. 1996. A qualitative analysis of law librarians and their use of E-mail. Master's Thesis., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Kandies, Jerry T. 1994. Electronic mail: Attitudes, self-efficacy, and effective communication. PhD Dissertation., Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

Kanfer, Alaina. It's a thin world: The association between email use and patterns of communication and relationships. in Naitonal Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [database online]. 1999Available from

Kautz, K. 1995. Information technology transfer and implementation: The introduction of an electronic mail system in a public service organization. Paper presented at Diffusion and Adoption of Information Technology, Proceedings of the First IFIP WG 8.6 Working Conference on the Diffusion and Adoption of Information Technology, Oslo, Norway.

Kraut, R. E., and P. Attewell. 1997. Media use in global corporation: Electronic mail and organizational knowledge. In Culture of the internet., ed. S. Kiesler, 323-342. Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,

Kushmerick, N., and T. Lau. 2005. Automated email activity management: An unsupervised learning approach. San Diego, California, USA: ACM Press,

Liebscher, P., E. G. Abels, and D. W. Denman. 1997. Factors that influence the use of electronic networks by science and engineering faculty at small institutions. part II: Preliminary use indicators. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 48, (6) (June 1997): 486.

Losee, R. M. J. 1989. Minimizing information overload: The ranking of electronic messages. Journal of Information Science 15, : 179-189.

Mackay, W. E. 1988. Diversity in the use of electronic mail: A preliminary inquiry. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 6, (4): 380-397,

Mackenzie, M. L. 2000. The personal organizaton of electronic mail messages in a business environment: An exploratory study. Library and Information Science Research 22, (4): 405-426.

Minsky, B. D., and Marin, D. B. . 1999. Why faculty members use E-mail: The role of individual differences in channel choice. Journal of Business Communication 36, (2) (April 1999): 194.

Mock, K. 2001. An experimental framework for email categorization and management. 24th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval: 392-393,

Nelson, F., and Knight Ridder. 1999. E-mail has changed the way we do business. The Buffalo News, July 6, 1999, 1999, sec Click Section.

Rea, M. V. D., and J. M. Pemberton. 1994. Electronic mail and electronic data interchange: Challenges to records management. Records Management Quarterly 28, (4) (October 1994): 3.

Robbin, A. 1992. Social scientists at work on electronic research networks. Electronic Networking: Research, Applications and Policy 2, (2) (Summer 1992): 6-30.

Samuels, J. 1998. Electronic mail: Information exchange or information loss. In Historians and electronic artifacts., ed. E. Higgs, 101-119. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schwartz, D. G. 1999. When E-mail meets organizational memories: Addressing threats to communication in a learning organization. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 51, (3): 599-614, doi:10.1006/ijhc.1999.0276.

———. 1998. Applying shared semantics to organizational E-mail communications. Journal of Internet Research 8, (2).

Searcy, D. 1998. Electronic mail usage by full-time teaching faculty, faculty of education, university of manitoba. Master's Thesis., University of Manitoba.

Silver, B. 2000. Lost E-mail? 5 archive solutions. Imaging and Document Solutions (November 2000),

Stevens, G. R. , and J. McElhill. 2000. A qualitative study and model of the use of E-mail in organizations. Internet Research 10, (4): 271-283.

Sullivan, Christopher B. 1995. Preferences for electornic mail in organizational communication tasks. Journal of Business Communication 32, (1) (January 1995): 49-64.

Sullivan, Colin. 1999. E-mail archiving: Why is it important to keep track of all your E-mails? Inform 13, (8) (September/October): 24.

Whittaker, S., and C. L. Sidner. 1996. Email overload: Exploring personal information management of email. Proceedings of CHI '96 Conference on Computer Human Interaction: 276-283,

Wilcox, Dennis. 1994. Diffusion of electronic mail in a university setting. Master's Thesis., San Jose State University.

Yiu, K. S., R. Baecker, N. Silver, and B. Long. 1997. A time-based interface for electronic mail and task management. Design of Computing Systems: Proceedings of HCI International 1997: 19-22,

Information Management Behaviors

Abrams, D., R. Baecker, and M. Chignelli. 1998. Information archiving with bookmarks: Personal web space construction and organization. : 41-48,

Abrhamson, E. 2002. Disorganization theory and disorganizational behavior: Towards an etiology of messes. Research in Organizational Behavior 24, : 139-180.

Bannon, L., A. Cypher, S. Greenspan, and M. L. Monty. 1983. Evaluation and analysis of users' activity organization. Boston, Massachusetts, United States: ACM Press,

Barreau, D. K., and Nardi, B. A. . 1995. Finding and reminding: File organization from the desktop. SIGCHI Bulletin 27, (3) (July): 39-43,

Boardman, R. 2001. Multiple hierarchies in user workspace. Paper presented at CHI 2001: Extended Abstracts on Human FActors in Computer Systems, ,

Boardman, R., and M. A. Sasse. 2004. Stuff goes into the computer and doesn't come out: A cross-tool study of personal information management. Paper presented at 2004 Conferenc eon Human Factors in Computing Systems, ,

Boardman, R., R. Spence, and M. A. Sasse. 2002. Life beyond the mailbox: A cross-tool perspective on personal information management. Paper presented at Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) 2002 Workshop: Redesigning Email for the 21st Century, ,

Bowker, G. C., and S. L. Star. 1999. Sorting things out: Classification and its consequences. Cambridge: MIT PRess.

Carroll, J. 1982. Creating names for personal files in an interactive computing environment. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 16, : 405-438.

Case, D. O. 1991. Conceptual organization and retrieval of text by historians: The role of memory and metaphor. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 42, (9): 657-668,

———. 1988. The use of anthropological methods in studying information management by american historians. Paper presented at Information Technology: Planning for the next Fifty Years. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science .

Cole, I. 1982. Human aspects of office filing: Implications for the electronic office. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 26th Annual Meeting .

Davenport, T. 1998. Think tank making the most of an information-rich environment. CIO Magazine October 1, ,

Dourish, P., J. Lamping, and T. Rodden. 1999. Building bridges: Customization and mutual intelligibility in shared category management. Paper presented at Group 99, ,

Farhoomand, A. F., and D. H. Drury. 2002. Managerial information overload. Commun.ACM 45, (10): 127-131,

Fertig, S., E. Freemand, and D. Gelernter. 1996. Finding and reminding reconsidered. SIGCHI Bulletin 28, (1) (January): 66-69,

Ford, N. 1999. Information retrieval for evidence-based decision making. Journal of Documentation 55, (4) (September): 385-401.

Goncalves, D., and J. A. Jorge. 2003. Analyzing personal document spaces. Paper presented at Human-Computer Interaction International 2003, ,

Gottlieb, L., and J. Dilevko. 2003. Investigating how individuals conceptually and physically structure file folders for electronic bookmarks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54, (2): 124-139,

Henderson, S. 2004. How do people organize their desktops?. Vienna, Austria: ACM Press,

Jacob, E. 2001. The everyday world of work: Two approaches to the investigation of classification in context. Journal of Documentation 57, (1).

Jahoda, G. E., R. D. Hutchens, and R. R. Galford. 1966. Characteristics an use of personal indexes maintained by scientists and engineers in one university. American Documentation 17, : 71-75.

Jones, W., S. T. Dumais, and H. Bruce. 2002. Once found, what then? A study of 'keeping' behaviors in the personal use of web information. Paper presented at American Society of Information Science and Technology Conference 2002, ,

Kidd, A. 1994. The marks are on the information worker. Paper presented at Proceedings of CHI 1994,

Kwasnik, B. H. . 1998. Factors affecting the naming of documents in an office. Paper presented at ASIS ’88: Proceedings of the 51st ASIS Annual Meeting, .

———. 1992. The exploration by means of repertory grids of semantic differences amoung names for office documents. In Classification research for knowledge representation and organization., eds. N. J. Williamson, M. Hudon, 273-283. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

———. 1991. The importance of factors that are not document attributes in the organization of personal documents. Journal of Documentation 47, (4) (December): 389-398.

———. 1989. How a personal Document’s intended use or purpose affects its classification in an office. Paper presented at SIGIR ’89: Proceedings of the 12th Annual International ACMSIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ,

———. 1989. The influence of context on classificatory behavior. PhD Thesis., Rutgers. The State University of New Jersey.

Lansdale, M., and E. Edmonds. 1992. Using memory for events in the design of personal filing systems. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 36, (1): 97-126.

Malone, T. W. . 1983. How do people organize their desks? implications for the design of office information systems. ACM Transactions on Office Systems 1, (1) (January): 99-112,

Mander, R., G. Salomon, and Y. Y. Won. 1992. A pile metaphor for supporting casual organization of information. Paper presented at SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ,

Meredith, R. 2003. When one isn't enough: An analysis of virtual desktop usage strategies and their implications for design. Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA: ACM Press,

Neumann, L. J. 1999. Paper, piles, and computer files: Folklore of information work environements. Library Trends 47, (3): 439-469,

Ravasio, P., S. S. Guttormsen, and H. Krueger. 2004. In pursuit of desktop evolution: User problems and practices with modern desktop systems. ACM Trans.Comput.-Hum.Interact. 11, (2): 156-180,

Ringel, M., E. Cutrell, S. T. Dumais, and E. Horvitz. 2003. Milestones in time: The value of landmarks in retrieving information from personal stores. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems,

Rodden, K., and K. Wood R. 2003. How do people manage their digital photographs?. Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA: ACM Press,

Rosenberg, S. 1999. Let's get this straight: Personal information mismanagement. ,

Soper, M. E. 1976. Characteristics and use of personal collections. Library Quarterly 46, (4): 397-415.

Te'Eni, D., and D. E. Schwartz. 1999. Contextualization in computer-mediated communciation. In Information systems - the next generation., eds. L. Brooks, C. Kimble, 327-338. London: McGraw-Hill.

Whittaker, S., and J. HIrschberg. 2001. The character, value, and management of personal paper archives. ACM Transactions Computer Human Interaction 8, (2): 150-170,

Wilson, Thomas D. 1999. Models in information behaviour research. Journal of Documentation 55, (3): 249-270.

Wilson, P. 2001. Twenty years in the life of a long-term empirical personal electronic filing study. Behavior and Information Technology 20, (5): 395-409.

Zipf, G. K. 1949. Human behavior and the principle of least effortAddison Wesley.

Legal Issues and Policies

Barry, R. 1998. E-mail legal status. March 31,

Cody, J. 1999. Policies and procedures for managing E-data. Texas Lawyer (August 19).

Davis, B. W. 1999. Legal risks may be minimized by forming clear email policy. Crain's Cleveland Business [Online Serial].

Freedom of Information Center. FOI statues by state.

Glassberg, B. C., W. J. Kettinger, and J. E. Logan. 1996. Electronic communication: An ounce of policy is worth a pound of cure. Business Horizons 39, (4): 74-80.

Grossman, M. 1999. Litigation in the cyber age: Protect your business by protecting digital data. Texas Lawyer [Online Serial].

Harmon, A. 1998. Corporate delete keys busy as E-mail turns up in court. , 11 November 1998, 1998, sec Late Edition.

Jones, V. 1998. Developing an E-mail policy: New technology requires new rules. Office Systems October, : 38-43.

Marquess, K. 1999. If pen is mightier than sword, is E-mail stronger than both? Chicago Lawyer [Online].

McNary, S. 1999. Corona E-mail isn't permanent: City officials keep written letters for two years, but electronic messages are unusual if they are still around 90 days later. , 23 October 1999, 1999.

———. 1999. Corona mulls preservation of it's E-mail: Lawsuit calls for E-mail to be treated like letters. , 16 November 1999, 1999.

———. 1999. Lawyer sues over E-mail: He says the delete electronic messages from corona citizens have been used in a class-action suit over traffic issues. , 28 October 1999, 1999.

Pasterczyk, C. E. 1998. Federal E-mail management: A records manager's view of armstrong v. executive office of the president and it's aftermath. Records Management Quarterly: 10-22.

Saunders, J. 1999. Legally on line. (June 1).

Schatz, A. J. 1999. Agencies move to retain E-mail. St. Petersburg Times, 27 September 1999, 1999, sec Hernando Times.

———. 1999. County can't deliver E-mail to public. St. Petersburg Times, 19 September 1999, 1999, sec Hernando Times.

Sipior, J. C., and B. T. Ward. 1999. The dark side of employee email. Communications of the ACM 42, (7): 88-95.

———. 1995. The ethical and legal quandry of email privacy. Communications of the ACM 38, (12): 48-55.

Stern, A. 1996. Electronic mail raises thorny legal questions. , 8 April 1996, 1996, sec Second.

Thompson, J. A., K. B. DeTienne, and K. L. Smart. 1995. Privacy, E-mail, and information policy: Where ethics meets reality. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 38, : 158-164.

Utah State Archives and Records Services. Electronic records.

Walker, C. 1998. Take a lesson from microsoft: Clean up your mail files or you will be all washed up. EWeek, (,11011,364129,00.html.

Wallace, D. A. 2000. Email in higher education: Policy issues and strategies. Paper presented at ECURE 2000 Conference: "Preservation and Access for Electronic College and University Records", ,

———. 1998. Recordkeeping and electronic mail policy: The state of thought and the state of practice. Paper presented at Annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, ,

Personal Information Management Systems and Interface Design

Adar, E., D. Kargar, and L. A. Stein. 1999. Haystack: Per-user information environments. Paper presented at Eigth International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, ,

Balter, O., and C. L. Sidner. 2002. Bitfrost inbox organizer: Giving users control over the inbox. Paper presented at Second Nordic Conference on Human Computer Interaction, ,

Barreau, D. K. 1995. Context as a factor in personal information management systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 46, (5): 327-339.

Bellotti, V., N. Ducheneaut, M. Howard, C. Neuwirth, I. Smith, and T. Smith. 2002. Flannel: Adding computation to electronic mail during transmission. Paper presented at Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, ,

Bellotti, V., N. Ducheneaut, M. Howard, and I. Smith. 2003. Taking email to task: The design and evaluation of task management centered email tool. Paper presented at SIG-CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing System, ,

Bellotti, V., N. Ducheneaut, M. Howard, I. Smith, and C. Neuwirth. 2002. Innovation in extremis: Evolving an application for the critical work of email and information management. London, England: ACM Press,

Bellotti, V., and I. Smith. 2000. Informing the design of an information management system with interative fieldwork. Paper presented at Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods and Techniques, ,

Bergman, O., R. Beyth-Marom, and R. Nachmias. 2003. The user subjective approach to personal information management systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54, (9): 872-878,

Bernard, K., and W. Eric. 2004. Designing remail: Reinventing the email client through innovation and integration. Vienna, Austria: ACM Press,

Crawford, E., J. Kay, and E. McCreath. 2002. An intelligent interface for sorting electronic mail. San Francisco, California, USA: ACM Press,

Dourish, P., W. K. Edwards, A. LaMarka, and M. Salisbury. 1999. Presto: An experimental architecture for fluid interactive document spaces. ACM Transactions Computer Human Interaction 6, (2): 133-161,

Dragunov, A. N., T. G. Dietterich, K. Johnsrude, M. McLaughlin, L. Li, and J. L. Herlocker. 2005. TaskTracer: A desktop environment to support multi-tasking knowledge workers. San Diego, California, USA: ACM Press,

Dumais, S. T., E. Cutrell, J. J. Cadiz, and G. Jancke. 2003. Stuff I've seen: A system for personal information retrieval and re-use. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 26th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ,

Fertig, S., E. Freeman, and D. Gelernter. 1996. Lifestreams: An alternative to the desktop metaphor. Paper presented at Conference on Human Factors and Computing Systems, ,

Gemmell, J., G. Bell, R. Lueder, S. Drucker, and C. Wong. 2002. MyLifeBits: Fulfilling the memex vision. Paper presented at Tenth ACM International Conference on Multimedia, ,

Gould, J. D., S. J. Boies, and C. Lewis. 1991. Making usable, useful, productivity-enhancing computer applications. Communications of the ACM 34, (1): 74-85.

Gwizdka, J. 2002. TaskView: Design and evaluation of a task-based email interface. Paper presented at IBM Centers for Advanced Studies Conference, ,

Hiltz, S. R., and M. Turoff. 1985. Structuring computer-mediated communication systems to avoid information overload. Communications of the ACM 28, (7): 680-686.

Huynh, D., Kargar, D. and Quan, D. Haystack: A platform for creating, organizing, and visualizing information using RDF. 2002.

Kaplan, S. J., M. D. Kapor, E. J. Belove, R. A. Landsman, and T. R. Drake. 1990. Agenda: A personal information manager. Communications of the ACM 33, (7): 105-116,

Kiss, A., and J. Quinqueton. 2004. Uniscript: A model for persistent and incremental knowledge storage. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press,

Lamming, M., M. Eldridge, M. Flynn, C. Jones, and D. Pendelbury. 2000. Satchel: Providing access to any document, any time, anywhere. ACM Transactions in Computer Human Interaction 7, (3): 322-352,

Rao, R., S. K. Card, W. Johnson, L. Klotz, and R. H. Trigg. 1994. Protofoil: Storing and finding the information worker's paper documents in an electronic file cabinet. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 180-185.

Segal, R. B., and J. O. Kepart. 1999. MailCat: An intelligent assistant for organizing E-mail. Paper presented at Third Annual Conference on Autonomous Agents, ,

Sheridan, T. B. 1989. Designing complex technology: Understanding it as of, by, and for people. Technological Forcasting and Social Change 36, : 89-97.

Takkinen, J., and N. Shahmehri. 1998. CAFE: A conceptual model for managing information in electronic mail. Proceedings of HICSS-31, the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: 44-53,

Whittaker, S., Q. Jones, Nardi, B. A. , M. Creech, L. Terveen, E. Isaacs, and J. Hainsworth. 2004. ContactMap: Organizing communication in a social desktop. ACM Trans.Comput.-Hum.Interact. 11, (4): 445-471,

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Managing the Digital University Desktop / University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill / School of Information and Library Science / 100 Manning Hall, CB 3360 / Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3360