All Articles and Search Tasks

830 records found

Citation
Arif, A.S.M., Du, J.T., & Lee, I. (2015). Understanding tourists' collaborative information retrieval behavior to inform design. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(11), 2285-2303.
Task type: Exploratory search tasks
Task type definition: "Search Task 1 and Search Task 2 were designed to examine tourists’ collaborative search behavior with no prior knowledge/experiences (i.e., nobody on the team had any relevant knowledge) and with prior knowledge/experiences (i.e., at least one of the team had relevant prior knowledge) about a destination, respectively." (p.2289)
Tasks:
1 "Search Task 1, Collaborative information searching without prior knowledge: You along with your friend plan to go out for travel for one month. For a better trip planning, you need to gather information about the destination, accommodation, transport, food, weather, attractions, etc. It is provided that nobody of your team has any prior knowledge about that destination or related information. Suppose you and your team member want to search information for this trip. You and your teammate are sitting in a room and using two computers separately for searching travel/tourism information on the Web and both of you have the communication tools (e.g. Google talk and Skype) installed for discussions during the Web search. Now you along with your teammate are asked to find information as much as you can for your trip." (p.2302)
2 Search Task 2, Collaborative information searching with prior knowledge: You along with your friend plan to go out for travel for one month. For a better trip planning, you need to gather information about the destination, accommodation, transport, food, weather, attractions, etc. Somebody (including you) of your team has prior experience associated with visiting this destination. You and your team member want to search information for this trip. You and your teammate (who has prior experience) are sitting in a room and using two computers separately for searching travel/tourism information on the Web and both of you have the communication tools (e.g. Google talk and Skype) installed for discussions during the Web search. Now you along with your teammate are asked to find information as much as you can for your trip." (p.2302)
Task type: Complex exploratory search task
Task type definition: "The third search task (Task 3) simulated a complex situation where the participants were asked to go to a place which was known to at least one of the teammates, and several travel conditions, such as accommodation, weather, and budget, needed to be satisfied concurrently." (p.2289)
Tasks:
1 Search Task 3, Collaborative information searching for a complex task: You along with your friend plan to go out for travel for one month. For a better trip planning, you need to gather information about the destination, accommodation, transport, food, weather, attractions, etc. Somebody (including you) of your team has prior experience of visiting this destination. You and your team member want to search information for this trip. You and your teammate (who has prior experience) are sitting in a room and using two computers separately for searching travel/tourism information on the Web and both of you have communicating tools (e.g. Google talk and Skype) to facilitate discussions. Now you have to find an accommodation near the location of a sea beach. Moreover, the weather forecast should be good (say no rain and temperature is between 200C and 300C), and the accommodation should cost less than a certain amount of money (say AUD 100 per night)." (p.2302)
Sahib, N.G., Tombros, A., & Stockman, T. (2015). Evaluating a search interface for visually impaired searchers. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(11), 2235-2248.
Task type: Complex multisession task
Task type definition: "A task likely to span multiple sessions in real-life circumstances" (p.2241)
Tasks:
1 "Session I: You have always wanted to visit Australia after hearing great things about the country. You might have some days off soon and you are thinking of travelling to Australia. Find out more about the country, the cities you can visit, and things to do there. Session II: You have now confirmed your travel plans and know you will be staying in Australia for 7 days. Using the information you encountered in the previous session and new information, make a rough schedule of how you would like to spend your days there." (p.2242)
Gonzalez-Ibanez, R., Shah, C., & White, R.W. (2015). Capturing collaboportunities: A method to evaluate collaboration opportunities in information search using pseudocollaboration. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(9), 1897-1912.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "A leading newspaper has hired your team to create a comprehensive report on the causes, effects, and consequences of the recent Gulf oil spill. As a part of your contract, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find. To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Make sure you also rate a snippet to help you in ranking them based on their quality and usefulness. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report, no longer than 200 lines, as instructed. Your report on this topic should address the following issues: description of how the oil spill took place, reactions by BP as well as various government and other agencies, impact on economy and life (people and animals) in the Gulf, attempts to fix the leaking well and to clean the waters, long‐term implications, and lessons learned." (p.1904)
Smith, C.L. (2015). Domain-independent search expertise: A description of procedural knowledge gained during guided instruction. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(7), 1388-1405.
Han, H. (2018). Children's help-seeking behaviors and effects of domain knowledge in using Google and Kids.gov: Query formulation and results evaluation stages. Library & Information Science Research, 40(3), 208-218.
Task type: Fact-based search task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Find relevant information about George Washington's trip outside of America: a) When and where was George Washington's trip outside of America, and b) With whom did George Washington go on a trip outside of America? (p.212)
Task type: Complex search task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 George Washington's Farewell Address was a letter written by George Washington. What did George Washington urge the American people to do in his Farewell Address? Please list more than two. (p.212)
Wu, W.-C., Kelly, D., & Sud, A. (2014). Using information scent and need for cognition to understand online search behavior. Proceedings of the 37th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research & Development in Information Retrieval, 557-566.
Task type: Open-ended search tasks
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 Having heard some of the recent reports on risks of natural tanning, it seems like a better idea to sport an artificial tan this summer. What are some of the different types of artificial tanning methods? How risky are they? Which one would you recommend?
2 You recently became involved with a conservation group that picks-up trash from local waterways. One of the group members told you that your work was important because it helps keep pollution out of the ocean. What are some of the different types of marine pollutants? What environmental risks are associated with each pollutant? Which one seems to be the most harmful to the environment?
3 Your sister is turning 25 next month and wants to do something exciting for her birthday. She is considering some type of extreme sport on the water. What are some different types of action water sports in which amateurs can participate? What are the risks involved with each one? Which one would you recommend?
4 One of your siblings got a spur of the moment tattoo, and now regrets it. What are the current available methods for tattoo removal, and how effective are they? Which method do you think is best?
5 Many people believe that social media has many benefits to our life, but your sibling argues that people are losing their ability to communicate face-to-face and that social media makes people lonelier and more isolated. What are the positive and negative consequences of using social media? Do you believe that social media is detrimental to the development of personal relationships?
6 For his 16th birthday, your nephew has asked you for a video game that is rated “M” for mature audiences because it contains intense violence. You are unsure about whether to purchase this game because you recently overheard two people discussing the effects of violent video games on teenagers. What are some positive and negative effects of playing violent video games on teenagers? Would you buy a video game rated “M” for him?
Carevic, Z., Lusky, M., van Hoek, W., & Mayr, P. (2018). Investigating exploratory search activities based on the stratagem level in digital libraries. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 19(2-3), 231-251.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "You are writing an essay about education inequality. You have already done a first literature search and found a document that you consider very relevant. In order to find more literature for your essay, you are looking for similar documents now. You have 10 minutes left before you have to pack your bags and go home. You decide to use the time for finding similar documents. For this purpose, you start in Sowiport with the relevant document that you have already found. Collect the documents that you consider relevant by opening them in new browser tabs." (Fig. 1, p.235)
Golovchinsky, G., Diriye, A., & Dunnigan, T. (2012). The future is in the past: Designing for exploratory search. Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium (IIiX 2012), 52-61.
Jetter, H.-C., Gerken, J., Zollner, M., Reiterer, H., & Milic-Frayling, N. (2011). Materializing the query with Facet-Streams: A hybrid surface for collaborative search on tabletops. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2011), 3013-3022.
Morris, M.R., & Horvitz, E. (2007). SearchTogether: An interface for collaborative Web search. Proceedings of the 20th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 07), 3-12.
Niu, X., & Hemminger, B. (2015). Analyzing the interaction patterns in a faceted search interface. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(5), 1030-1047.
Task type: Simple close ended
Task type definition: "The fuzzier the description, the more complex the task" (p.1035). Simple tasks had three exact clues. "Close-ended tasks ask users to find one specific item based on some specific information, such as author, title, or publisher, and there is only one absolutely correct answer" (p.1035).
Tasks:
1 1. You want to find the classic piece of “To Kill a Mockingbird” published by “HarperCollinsPublishers” in 1995.
2 2. You just heard a pop song at a restaurant. Somebody told you the song was “Sweet Dreams” by Beyoncé. You want to find if the library has a music CD containing this song.
3 1. You want to find the classic piece of “The Catcher in the Rye” published by “Little, Brown” in 1951.
4 2. You just heard a pop song at a café. Somebody told you the song was “Without You” by Mariah Carey. You want to find if the library has a music CD containing this song.
Task type: Simple open ended
Task type definition: "The fuzzier the description, the more complex the task" (p.1035). Simple tasks had three exact clues. "For the open-ended tasks, users find three items on a particular topic. There might be more than three correct items" (p.1035).
Tasks:
1 5. You want to find three movies that were originally released in a language other than English. The movies should be published by Paramount Pictures.
2 6. You want to watch some recently released movies; you are to find three movies that have been received in the last month by the UNC “Media Resources Center.”
3 5. You want to find three movies by Warner Brothers. The movies should be in any media other than DVD or Blu-Ray disk, because you do not have a DVD player.
4 6. You want to find three journals, magazines, or serials that the Information & Library Science Library has recently received in last three months.
Task type: Complex close ended
Task type definition: "The fuzzier the description, the more complex the task" (p.1035). Complex tasks had one exact and two fuzzy clues. "Close-ended tasks ask users to find one specific item based on some specific information, such as author, title, or publisher, and there is only one absolutely correct answer" (p.1035).
Tasks:
1 3. A friend recommended a book to you, but you cant remember the exact title. You know the author is Stephen Hawking and it is about advanced series in astrophysics and cosmology, particularly big bang theory.
2 4. You are developing an online questionnaire and need some entry-level guidance on PHP programming. A professor recommended a book to you, but all you can remember is the authors last name started with “Vas,” like Vassemeyer or Vastuck, and that the book was published in 2009.
3 3. Your dad is a war film lover. He asked you if you could help him find the movie about a group of people raising the American flag at the battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. The movie director is Clint Eastwood.
4 4. Next month you are taking a trip to Europe. To get ready for your trip, you want to read a travel guide to Europe. You remember you have read a good one. The authors first and last names both begin with the letter “B.” You also remember it was published in 1992. Try to find whether the library catalog has the book.
Task type: Complex open ended
Task type definition: "The fuzzier the description, the more complex the task" (p.1035). Complex tasks had one exact and two fuzzy clues. "For the open-ended tasks, users find three items on a particular topic. There might be more than three correct items" (p.1035).
Tasks:
1 7. You are taking an economics class. For your term paper you want to find three resources (any type) that cover the topic of microfinance as related to small business in either Asian or African countries.
2 8. You want to find three science fiction books published after 2000 that have stories involving robots.
3 7. You have heard many news stories recently about Egypt. You would like to know some more background information to better understand the news. You want to find three titles about Egyptian politics, particularly Hosni Mubaraks influence on Egyptian politics. They should be either an e-book or an online resource.
4 8. You want to find three comics or graphic novels containing stories about fictitious mouse characters. They should be published after 2005.
Zhang, X., Liu, J., Cole, M., & Belkin, N. (2015). Predicting users domain knowledge in information retrieval using multiple regression analysis of search behaviors. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(5), 980-1000.
Task type: TREC topics
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 7, DNA repair and oxidative stress. Need: Find correlation between DNA repair pathways and oxidative stress. Context: Researcher is interested in how oxidative stress affects DNA repair.
2 45 Mental Health Wellness-1. Need: What genetic loci, such as Mental Health Wellness 1 (MWH1) are implicated in mental health? Context: Want to identify genes involved in mental disorders.
3 42 Genes altered by chromosome translocations. Need: What genes show altered behavior due to chromosomal rearrangements? Context: Information is required on the disruption of functions from genomic DNA rearrangements.
4 49 Glyphosate tolerance gene sequence. Need: Find reports and glyphosate tolerance gene sequences in the literature. Context: A DNA sequence isolated in the laboratory is often sequenced only partially, until enough sequence is generated to identify the gene. In these situations, the rest of the sequence is inferred from matching clones in the public domain. When there is difficulty in the laboratory manipulating the DNA segment using sequence-dependent methods, the laboratory isolate must be reexamined.
5 2 Generating transgenic mice. Need: Find protocols for generating transgenic mice. Context: Determine protocols to generate transgenic mice having a single copy of the gene of interest at a specific location.
Kim, J., Thomas, P., Sanakaranarayana, R., Gedeon, T., & Yoon, H.-J. (2015). Eye-tracking analysis of user behavior and performance in web search on large and small screens. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(3), 526-544.
Task type: informational
Task type definition: "For finding information on one or two web pages" (p.528)
Tasks:
1 Find a contact number of a rental agency where you can rent a stretch limousine version of a Hummer in Australia.
2 What is the address of the Commonwealth Banks headquarters (city and street)?
3 What is the standard length of a cue used for playing billiards?
4 In what year was the Australian University established?
5 How much optical zoom does the compact digital camera Sony Cyber-Shot W530 have? None; 3x; 4x; 100x; ..?
6 The new iPad 2 is out just a few months ago. In what colours can you get it (the colour of itself—not the colour of additional cases for it)?
7 How many guest rooms does the Novotel in Canberra have?
8 The Sydney Light Rail Pass is a ticket that lets you visit many of Sydneys sights without having to buy separate tickets each time. How much does a weekly Pass cost?
9 How many spikes are in the crown of the Statue of Liberty?
10 Find the address of an official Audi dealer near Canberra.
Task type: navigational
Task type definition: "For reaching a particular page" (p.528)
Tasks:
1 Find the webpage where you can apply for a personal checking account on the ANZ Bank website.
2 Find the mortgage calculator on the Commonwealth Bank website where you can calculate mortgage rates for financing a new home.
3 Go to the homepage of the Canberra Cavalry baseball team.
4 A friend of yours would like to buy some new golf clubs. Go to the official Drummond homepage.
5 Go to the official product overview page for Sony camcorders (i.e., on the Sony website).
6 You bought a laptop from Dell and something doesnt work as expected. Find the page for Dell technical support.
7 You are interested in shoes from Nike. Go to NikeStore on the official Nike homepage.
8 A friend is sick and shows a couple of different symptoms. Its nothing serious but you want to help find out what it is. Find the symptom checker webpage of WebMD.
9 Find the official homepage of the Canberra casino and hotel in Canberra.
10 Find the official Porsche website that shows Model 911 overview for Australia.
Leichner, N., Peter, J., Maher, A.-K., & Krampen, G. (2014). Assessing information literacy using information search tasks. Journal of Information Literacy, 8(1), 3-20.
Task type: Difficulty level 1
Task type definition: "Searching for scientific publications which discuss a topic defined by a scientific term and have been published during a certain period of time." (p.6)
Tasks:
1 The professor wants to find out whether a specific issue has been the topic of recent publications. Your assignment is: find two scientific publications published after 2005 dealing with false memories. Use the term ‘false memory’ as a search term. (p.16)
2 The professor wants to find out whether a specific issue has been the topic of recent publications. Your assignment is: find two scientific publications published after 2005 dealing with short term memory. Use ‘Short Term Memory’ as a search term. (p.16)
3 The professor wants to find out whether a specific issue has been the topic of recent publications. Your assignment is: find two scientific publications published after 2003 dealing with panic attacks. Use the term ‘panic attack’ as a search term. (p.16)
Task type: Difficulty level 2
Task type definition: "Searching for scientific publications discussing an issue which is defined using two scientific terms. Publications must meet several requirements (e.g. publication date, type of methodology used in the study)." (p.6-7)
Tasks:
1 The professor wants to gain an overview about a specific issue. Your assignment is: are there longitudinal studies published after 2005 investigating ‘risk factors for generalized anxiety disorder’? If possible, indicate two publications. (p.16)
2 The professor wants to gain an overview about a specific issue. Your assignment is: are there meta-analyses published after 2005 investigating ‘risk factors’ for the development of a ‘Posttraumatic stress disorder’? If possible, indicate two publications. (p.16)
3 The professor wants to gain an overview about a specific issue. Your assignment is: are there meta-analyses published after 2003 investigating the effectiveness of ‘cognitive behavior therapy’ for the treatment of depression (‘Major depression’)? If possible, indicate two publications. (p.16)
Task type: Difficulty level 3
Task type definition: "Searching for scientific publications concerning an issue which is defined using non-scientific terms." (p.7)
Tasks:
1 The professor wants to find out whether the treatment of depressive disorders is more difficult in older persons. Your assignment is: find two scientific publications dealing with the question whether age differences have an impact on the treatment outcome of a depression treatment. (p.16)
2 The professor wants to find out whether mental disorders tend to occur more often among members of certain ethnic groups. Your assignment is: find two scientific publications dealing with the question whether differences in the prevalence of mental disorders exist between ethnic groups. (p.16)
3 The professor tries to find out which pain treatment options are available for patients with personality disorders. Your assignment is: find two scientific publications dealing with the questions which kinds of pain treatment can be used with patients with personality disorders. (p.17)
Rosman, T., Mayer, A.-K., & Krampen, G. (2016). A longitudinal study on information-seeking knowledge in psychology undergraduates: Exploring the role of information literacy instruction and working memory capacity. Computers & Education, 96, 94-108.
Task type: Medium difficulty
Task type definition: "The information search tasks consisted of three increasingly difficult search assignments" (p.109)
Tasks:
1 Find two longitudinal studies on risk factors for generalised anxiety disorder published after 2005. (p.109)
Birru, M.S., Monaco, V.A., Charles, L., Drew, H., Njie, V., Bierria, T., Detlefsen, E., & Steinman, R.A. (2004). Internet usage by low-literacy adults seeking health information: An observational analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 6(3), e25.
Task type: Health-related questions
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Think of a health question you are interested in for yourself or for someone you know. Find out information about this question on the Internet." (p.3)
2 "Imagine that someone you care about has lung cancer. This person would like to know about treatments for lung cancer. Can you find out the three main types of treatments using the Internet?" (p.3)
3 "Imagine that you are at a doctor's office and you are told you have a disease called diabetes (sometimes called sugar). You are given a pill called Metformin to take for it. What does Metformin do?" (p.3)
Hansen, D.L., Derry, H.A., Resnick, P.J., & Richardson, C.R. (2003). Adolescents searching for health information on the Internet: An observational study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 5(4), e25.
Task type: Health-related questions
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Your aunt was just told she has diabetes. She isn't sure what kinds of food she can or can't eat. Using the Internet, find some information for your aunt about what foods she should or should not eat." (p.3)
2 "A friend recently started taking a drug called Paxil for depression. He seems to be tired all the time, and even falls asleep in class. Use the Internet to find out if the drug might be making him sleepy." (p.3)
3 "Your older brother has a problem with drinking too much alcohol. He wants to go to a local Alcoholics Anonymous meeting. Use the Internet to help him find a local meeting." (p.3)
4 "You want to get an HIV test, but you don't want anyone to know. You also don't have any money to pay for it. Use the Internet to find a place to get a free and confidential HIV test." (p.3)
5 "For class, you need to learn about medicine that can help people stop smoking. Using the Internet, find the names of these medicines." (p.3)
6 "You are about to get a tattoo, but a friend warned you that some places spread infections like HIV and hepatitis. Use the Internet to find out if this is true." (p.3)
Buhi, E.R., Daley, E.M., Fuhrmann, H.J., & Smith, S.A. (2009). An observational study of how young people search for online sexual health information. Journal of American College Health, 58(2), 101-111.
Task type: Sexual health scenarios
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Mary has been hearing a lot about the HPV vaccine, a vaccine that protects against several types of the human papillomavirus, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). Mary is considering getting the vaccine. Using the Internet, find out who can get the HPV vaccine.
2 Henry recently shared with his friend that he only engages in oral sex because he does not want to have to worry about STIs. Using the Internet, find out if Henry can get an STI through oral sex. If he can, name one STI he could get through oral sex.
3 Sarah has not used protection every time she has had sex. She is concerned about her health and would like to get tested for HIV/AIDS. Using the Internet, find one location in the local metropolitan area where Sarah can get an anonymous HIV test.
4 Tom has a latex allergy and is unable to use latex condoms during sex. Using the Internet, find out what other type of condom Tom can use instead of latex to protect himself against STIs.
5 Amy confides to her friend that she is 4 weeks (28 days) pregnant and considering having an abortion. Use the Internet to find one type of abortion Amy can have.
6 Maria and Jos had sex last night with a condom, but the condom broke. They are worried that Maria may become pregnant and are considering using emergency contraception (EC, morning after pill, or Plan B). Use the Internet to find out how many hours after sex, at a maximum, EC can be used effectively to prevent pregnancy.
7 Crystal has been taking an oral contraceptive consistently for more than one year. For the first 3 weeks of her birth control pack, Crystal takes an active, hormonal pill. For the last week of her birth control pack, Crystal takes a placebo pill which does not contain hormones. Since she has been on the pill, Crystal has heard from several friends that she could become pregnant during the placebo week of her birth control pills. Go on the Internet to find out if Crystal is still protected against pregnancy during the placebo week of her birth control pills.
8 Shawn is wondering whether the size of his penis is normal. Go on the Internet and find out the average length of an adults erect penis.
9 Jennifer has been having a difficult time adjusting to college life. To help her through her adjustment phase, Jennifer has been attending counseling sessions and taking an antidepressant. Since she started taking the antidepressants, Jennifer has noticed that she has little interest in sex with her boyfriend. Go to the Internet to find out if antidepressants can decrease a persons sex drive.
10 Amanda, a freshman at the University, is in the library studying until midnight most nights. Amanda is always anxious when she walks back to her dorm after these late night study sessions. Amanda recently heard that the University offers a campus safety escort service. Using the Internet, find the phone number for this student service.
11 Ryan has been drinking a lot lately and having unprotected sex. Using the Internet, find one way alcohol can impact Ryans sexual decision-making?
12 Julia was at a party this weekend and, after having only one beer, she passed out. Julia does not remember much about that night and believes she was drugged and raped. Using the Internet, find one place in the local metropolitan area where Julia can go for after-rape care and support.
Zhang, Y., & Salaba, A. (2012). What do users tell us about FRBR-based catalogs? Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 50(5-7), 705-723.
Task type: Find
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 Find a set of works (e.g., find Harry Potter materials) (p.710)
2 Find a work (e.g., find Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) (p.710)
3 Find an expression (e.g., find Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in Spanish) (p.710)
4 Find a manifestation (e.g., find Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban published by Arthur A. Levine Books in 1999) (p.710)
Task type: Identify
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 Identify a work (e.g., identify Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) (p.710)
2 Identify a manifestation (e.g., identify the most recent publication of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) (p.710)
Task type: Select
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 Select a manifestation (e.g., select the most recent publication of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) (p.710)
Task type: Obtain
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 Obtain an item (e.g., obtain a copy of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) (p.710)
Liu, J., Kim, C.S., & Creel, C. (2015). Exploring search task difficulty reasons in different task types and user knowledge groups. Information Processing & Management, 51, 273-285.
Task type: Intellectual task
Task type definition: As defined by Li & Belkin, 2008
Tasks:
1 Task 1 (T1): Suppose you are preparing to apply for a graduate school in your major. You want to do some research online, narrow down the target schools that you think best match with your background and interest. You also want to consider their financial aid opportunities and locations when choosing the schools. After you decide on the target schools, you want to learn about their admissions requirements. Your search task: Find two schools that you want to apply for, and save the webpages that show their admissions requirements. (p.277)
2 Task 4 (T4): You have read that Alfred North Whitehead wrote a book, Science and Modern World, and you are interested in learning more in the concept of simple location. You would like to learn about the various interpretations and views on Whiteheads simple location as a philosophical concept. Your search task: Search and save 5 articles, in full-text (.pdf or .html), that you think are helpful. (p.277)
Task type: Factual task
Task type definition: As defined by Li & Belkin, 2008
Tasks:
1 Task 2 (T2): You like and admire someone so much that you want to create aWikipedia entry for this person. Your search task: Please collect and save all the webpages and other online sources that are helpful for you to write such a Wikipedia entry. Note: for the selection of the person, you want to make sure that there is not an existing entry in Wikipedia for him/her. (The note was in the task description, and the Italic and bold font was as well.) (p.277)
2 Task 3 (T3): Your friend is a soccer fan and he is participating in a contest about soccer knowledge. For one question, he could not answer, but he had a chance to call you and ask you for information. The question is: Name at least one soccer player who had done a hat-trick in the 20102011 Italian Soccer League Series A. Your search task: Search online for the answer for the above question. Save the webpage(s) with the answer. (p.277)
Task type:
Task type definition:
Liu, J., & Belkin, N.J. (2015). Personalizing information retrieval for multi-session tasks: Examining the roles of task stage, task type, and topic knowledge on the interpretation of dwell time as an indicator of document usefulness. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 66(1), 58-81.
Task type: Parallel task
Task type definition: A task in which "the accomplishment of on subtask is not necessarily based on that of others" (p.64)
Tasks:
1 As a beat reporter for automobiles, you want to write a feature story about cost-effective cars, specifically, hybrid cars for low to mid-income level families. You want to focus on three models of cars from auto manufacturers that are famous for good warranties and fair maintenance costs, and the three models are: Honda Civic sedan, Toyota Camry sedan, and Nissan Altima sedan. You want to write about the features of each of the three models, including aspects such as: standard features and specifications, safety, pricing, reviews, possible pictures, and so on.You have three sessions to finish this assignment, and you will need to finish the writing on one car in each session. At the final session, you will need to integrate the three reports.
Task type: Dependent task
Task type definition: A task in which "the accomplishment of some subtask depends on that of others" (p.64)
Tasks:
1 As a beat reporter for automobiles, you want to write a feature story about cost-effective cars, specifically, hybrid cars for low to mid-income level families. To do it, you need to learn what makes and models have hybrid cars, what are their features, prices, and safety levels, etc. Specifically, you will need to accomplish the following activities: Collect information on what manufacturers have hybrid cars. You want to list the different models that are good for mid-level income families. Select three models that you will mainly focus on in this feature story. You want to introduce their specific features that make you choose them out of other models. Compare the pros and cons of three models of hybrid cars. You will have three sessions to finish this assignment. You will need to finish one activity in each session, but the order of the three sessions is up to you.
Rieh, S.Y. (2014). Credibility assessment of online information in context. Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice, 2(3), 6-17.
Task type: Information search task
Task type definition: "Subjects were asked to find information on an assigned topic and then copy-paste the URLs and portions of website content they found useful for the task into a Word document... Subjects were given up to 10 minutes for each information search task." (p.10)
Tasks:
1 A friend of yours has an appointment to get a flu shot tomorrow, but she has a cold. She is debating whether or not to keep her appointment. You would like to help her out by finding out what is generally recommended for people in her situation. (p.10)
Task type: Content creation task
Task type definition: "Subjects were asked to find information on an assigned topic and then write up a paragraph in a Word document. Subjects were given... up to 20 minutes for each content creation task." (p.10)
Tasks:
1 You run a forum in which people discuss various health issues. Someone has posted a question about whether or not they should get a flu shot if they currently have a cold. You would like to find out what is generally recommended in this situation and then post one paragraph in response to this persons post on your forum. (p.10)
Jiang, J., He, D., & Allan, J. (2014). Searching, browsing, and clicking in a search session: Changes in user behavior by task and over time. SIGIR Proceedings, 607-616.
Task type: Known item (KI)
Task type definition: "The product of a search task [is]... factual (to locate facts)... The goal of a search task [is]... specific (well-defined and fully developed)." (p.608)
Tasks:
1 Where is Bollywood located? From what foreign city did Bollywood derive its name? What is the Bollywood equivalent of Beverly Hills? What is Bollywood's equivalent of the Oscars? Where does Bollywood rank in the world's film industries? Who are some of the Bollywood stars? (p.608)
Task type: Known subject (KS)
Task type definition: "The product of a search task [is]... factual (to locate facts)... The goal of a search task [is]... amorphous (ill-defined or unclear goals that may evolve along with the users exploration)." (p.608)
Tasks:
1 You think that one of your friends may have depression, and you want to search information about the depression symptoms and possible treatments. (p.608)
Task type: Interpretive (IN)
Task type definition: "The product of a search task [is]... intellectual (to enhance the users understanding of a topic). The goal of a search task [is]... specific (well-defined and fully developed)." (p.608)
Tasks:
1 You would like to buy a dehumidifier. You want to know what makes a dehumidifier good value for money. (p.608)
Task type: Exploratory (EX)
Task type definition: "The product of a search task [is]... intellectual (to enhance the users understanding of a topic). The goal of a search task [is]... amorphous (ill-defined or unclear goals that may evolve along with the users exploration)." (p.608)
Tasks:
1 You would like to buy a dehumidifier. On what basis should you compare different dehumidifiers? (p.608)
Paul, S.A., & Morris, M.R. (2011). Sensemaking in collaborative web search. Human-Computer Interaction, 26(1-2), 27-122.
Task type: Vacation planning task
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Find fun activities for a weekend in Seattle given the constraints that each group member could spend only $50 and that the activities chosen should include one each of cultural, outdoor, and dining activities." (p.81-82)
Hearst, M.A. (2014). What's missing from the collaborative search? IEEE Computer, 47(3), 58-61.
Bystrom, K., & Jarvelin, K. (1995). Task complexity affects information seeking and use. Information Processing and Management, 31(2), 191-213.
Tenopir, C., Nahl-Jakobovits, D., & Howard, D. L. (1990). Full text search strategies and modifications: The role of the searcher and the role of the system. Proceedings of the Eleventh National Online Annual Meeting, 389-399.
Liu, J. & Belkin, N. (2014). Multi-aspect information use task performance: The roles of topic knowledge, task structure, and task stage. Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the Association for Information Science & Technology (ASIS&T).
Task type: Parallel tasks
Task type definition: "Where the search uses multiple concepts that exist on the same level in a conceptual hierarchy" (p.3)
Task type: Hierarchical/dependent tasks
Task type definition: "where the search uses a single concept for which multiple attributes or characteristics are sought" (p.3)
Wu, W. & Kelly, D. (2014). Online search stopping behaviors: An investigation of query abandonment and task stopping. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Information Science & Technology (ASIST).
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 Having heard some of the recent reports on risks of natural tanning, it seems like a better idea to sport an artificial tan this summer. What are some of the different tyeps of artificial tanning methods? How risky are they? Which one would you recommend? (Fig. 1, p.4)
Keselman, A., Browne, A.C., & Kaufman, D.R. (2008). Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15(4), 484-495.
Task type: Hypothetical scenario
Task type definition: undefined
Tasks:
1 "You are visiting your mother* who lives alone, in another part of the country. On the second day of your visit, she carries several bags of groceries up two flights of stairs and stops with a pained expression on her face. When you press her to tell you what is wrong, she admits that she is having chest pain. She says that the pain feels as if something were squeezing her chest. She is also nauseous and out of breath. She lies down to rest. The discomfort lasts 23 minutes, after which the pain stops. When you talk to her about this incident, she admits that for the past year, she has been troubled by periodic squeezing pain in her chest. Sometimes she can also feel the pain in her neck and shoulders. The pain usually happens after she does some- thing physically active: climbs several flights of stairs, does some heavy housework, unloads groceries, etc. When this happens, she also often feels nauseous and out of breath. She also feels very tired. The pain typically lasts a few minutes and goes away after she rests a while. She tells you not to worry, it is probably nothing, and is probably normal for her age. *For younger participants, the mothers age was specified as late sixties." (p. 495)
Eysenbach, G., & Kohler, C. (2002). How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the world wide web? Qualitative study using focus groups, usability tests, and in-depth interviews. BMJ, 324, 573-577.
Borgman, C. (1999). The user's mental model of an information retrieval system: An experiment on a prototype online catalog. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51(2), 435-452.
Vakkari, P., & Hakala, N. (2000). Changes in relevance criteria and problem stages in task performance. Journal of Documentation, 56(5), 540-562.
Rieh, S.Y. (2002). Judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(2), 145-161.
Task type: Generic tasks
Task type definition: "outlined the kinds of task, but did not restrict the specific information problems." (p.149)
Tasks:
1 "For the research project in which you are currently engaged, you would like to find some good papers which are new to you, which you think will be useful." (p.149)
2 "You are planning for the next conference that you are going to attend, and would like to find useful information about hotels, restaurants, and features of interest in that city." (p.149)
3 "A friend of yours has just been diagnosed as having schistosomiasis, and you want to find credible information about the disease itself, and the best methods of treatment." (p.149)
4 "You've decided that you want to buy a new computer to use at home, and now you need to find the best price for it." (p.149)
Hansen, P., & Järvelin, K. (2005). Collaborative information retrieval in an information-intensive domain. Information Processing & Management, 41(5), 1101-1119.
Nahl, D., & Tenopir, C. (1996). Affective and cognitive searching behavior of novice end-users of a full-text database. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 47(4), 276-286.
Lopatovska, I. (2009). Searching for good mood: examining relationships between search task and mood. Proceedings of the 72th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. November 6-11, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Task type: Low-complexity task
Task type definition: "Low complexity task was defined as a task that provided subjects with more information on what needs to be found." (p.4)
Tasks:
1 "A friend has recently been applying to various universities and courses but has been complaining that he finds it difficult to get accepted due to the rising numbers of students. You were unsure if his assessment was correct so you have decided to find out how the size of the student enrollment changed over the last 5 years and how it is expected to change in the coming 5 years." (p.4)
Task type: High-complexity task
Task type definition: "High complexity task was defined as a vaguely formulated task requiring information from multiple sources." (p.4)
Tasks:
1 "Your friend has just finished reading a copy of a national newspaper in which there is an article about Internet music piracy. The article stresses how this is a global problem and affects compact disc sales worldwide. Unaware of the major effects you decide to find out how and why music piracy influences the global music market." (pp.4-5)
Joachims, T., Granka, L., Gay, G., Hembrooke, H., & Pan, B. (2005). Accurately interpreting click-through data as implicit feedback. Proceedings of the Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR '05) (pp. 154-161), Salvador, Brazil.
Task type: Navigational
Task type definition: "[A]sking subjects to find a specific Web page or homepage." (p.155)
Tasks:
1 "Find the homepage of Michael Jordan, the statistician." (p.155)
2 "Find the page displaying the route map for Greyhound buses." (p.155)
3 "Find the homepage of the 1000 Acres Dude Ranch." (p.155)
4 "Find the homepage for graduate housing at Carnegie Mellon University." (p.155)
5 "Find the homepage of Emeril - the chef who has a television cooking program." (p.155)
Task type: Informational
Task type definition: "[A]sking subjects to find a specific bit of information." (p.155)
Tasks:
1 "Where is the tallest mountain in New York located?" (p.155)
2 "With the heavy coverage of the democratic presidential primaries, you are excited to cast your vote for a candidate. When are democratic presidential primaries in New York?" (p.155)
3 "Which actor starred as the main character in the original Time Machine movie?" (p.155)
4 "A friend told you that Mr. Cornell used to live close to campus - near University and Steward Ave. Does anybody live in his house now? If so, who?" (p.155)
5 "What is the name of the researcher who discovered the first modern antibiotic?" (p.155)
Gwizdka, J., & Lopatovska, I. (2009). The role of subjective factors in the information search process. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 60, 2452-2464.
Task type: Simple fact finding task
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact-finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value, a date)." (p.2454) "Simple , where the information need is satisfied by a single piece of information." (p.2455)
Tasks:
1 "You love history, and in particular, you are interested in the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights). You have read about their period of power, and now you want to learn more about their decline. What year was the Order defeated in a battle by a PolishLithuanian army?" (p.2464)
Task type: Parallel information gathering task
Task type definition: "The goal of an information-gathering task is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic." (p.2454) "Parallel, where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy (a breadth search)." (p.2455)
Tasks:
1 "Friends are planning to build a new house and have heard that using solar energy panels for heating can save a lot of money. Since they do not know anything about home heating and the issues involved, they have asked for your help. You are uncertain as well, and do some research to identify some issues that need to be considered in deciding between more conventional methods of home heating and solar panels." (p.2464)
Task type: Parallel fact finding task
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact-finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value, a date)." (p.2454) "Parallel, where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy (a breadth search)." (p.2455)
Tasks:
1 "As a history buff, you have heard of the quiet revolution, the peaceful revolution, and the velvet revolution. For a skill-testing question to win an iPod, you have been asked how they differ from the April 19th revolution." (p.2464)
Task type: Hierarchical fact finding
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact-finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value, a date)." (p.2454) "Hierarchical, where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept (a depth search)." (p.2455)
Tasks:
1 "A friend has just sent an email from an Internet café in the Southern USA where she is on a hiking trip. She tells you that she has just stepped into an anthill of small red ants and has a large number of painful bites on her leg. She wants to know what species of ants they are likely to be, how dangerous they are, and what she can do about the bites. What will you tell her?" (p.2464)
Task type: Hierarchical information gathering
Task type definition: "The goal of an information-gathering task is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic." (p.2454) "Hierarchical, where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept (a depth search)." (p.2455)
Tasks:
1 "You recently heard about the book Fast Food Nation, and it has really influenced the way you think about your diet. You note in particular the amount and types of food additives contained in the things that you eat every day. Now you want to understand which food additives pose a risk to your physical health, and are likely to be listed on grocery store labels." (p.2464)
Gwizdka, J. (2008). Cognitive load on web search tasks. Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognition and the Web, Information Processing, Comprehension, and Learning (Granada, Spain, 24-26 April 2008), 83-86.
Arapakis, I., Jose, J.M., & Gray, P.D. (2008). Affective feedback: An investigation into the role of emotions in the information seeking process. Proceedings of the 31st annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 395-402.
Bergman, O., Tene-Rubinstein, M., & Shalom, J. (2013). The use of attention resources in navigation vs. search. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 17(3), 583-590.
Woodruff, A., Faulring, A., Rosenholtz, R., Morrison, J., and Pirolli, P. (2001). Using thumbnails to search the Web. In Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2001 (Seattle).
Task type: Picture
Task type definition: "Participants were asked to locate a picture of a given entity." (p.202)
Tasks:
1 Find a picture of a giraffe in the wild. (p.202)
Task type: Homepage
Task type definition: "Participants were asked to locate the homepage of an individual they did not know." (p.202)
Tasks:
1 Find Kern Holomans homepage. (p.202)
2
Task type: E-commerce
Task type definition: "Participants were asked to locate a consumer electronics item for purchase." (p.202)
Tasks:
1 Find an ecommerce site where you can buy a DVD player. Identify the price in dollars. (p.202)
Task type: Side-effects
Task type definition: Participants were asked to locate three or more side-effects of a given drug." (p.202)
Tasks:
1 Find at least three side effects of Halcion. (p.202)
Chun, M. M., & Wolfe, J. M. (1996). Just say no: How are visual searches terminated when there is no target present? Cognitive Psychology, 30, 39-78.
Task type: Easy Condition
Task type definition: "The Easy Condition was a triple conjunction task where each distractor shared one feature with the target." (p.55)
Tasks:
1 "[O]bservers were instructed to look for a small red O among the three types of distractor items: Big red X; Big blue O; and Small Blue X." (p.55)
Task type: Hard Condition
Task type definition: "In the more difficult, Hard Condition, two thirds of the distractors shared two features with the target." (p.55)
Tasks:
1 "The target was a small blue O which shared two features with two of the previous distractors big blue O and small blue X, and shared no features with the big red X." (p.55)
Zhang, Y. (2014), Searching for specific health-related information in MedlinePlus: Behavioral patterns and user experience. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65: 53-68. doi: 10.1002/asi.22957
Task type: Specific tasks
Task type definition: "[T]he information required to answer these questions was clear and easy to recognize; the answers were located on one page; and little high-level information processing was required to complete the tasks." (p.57)
Tasks:
1 "One of your friends told you that she been exposed to hepatitis B because her husband is positive with hepatitis B. She was immunized some time ago with a hepatitis B vaccine. But now she is wondering how long a hepatitis B vaccine is usually good for." (p.57)
2 "Protein is a building block nutrient. Your body uses protein to build tissue, such as white and red blood cells, other cells in the immune system, skin, hair, and muscle. Given the importance of protein in your body, you want to find out how much protein an average person needs each day." (p.57)
3 "Years ago, if a woman was HIV+, family planning was the last thing on her mind; HIV and having a child just didnt mix. The fear of transmitting HIV to her unborn baby was too great for most women. But with the advent of HIV medications, you wonder whether it might be possible for an HIV positive woman to carry a baby. You decide to find out what are the possible ways to prevent an HIV positive mom from passing HIV to her unborn child." (p.57)
Du, J. T. (2014), The information journey of marketing professionals: Incorporating work task-driven information seeking, information judgments, information use, and information sharing. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65: 1850-1869. doi: 10.1002/asi.23085
Lopatovska, I. (2014), Toward a model of emotions and mood in the online information search process. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65: 1775-1793. doi: 10.1002/asi.23078
Task type: Low-complexity task
Task type definition: Consistent low difficultly evaluations from participants in pilot experiment.
Tasks:
1 A friend has recently been applying to various universities and courses but has been complaining that they are finding it difficult to attain a place due to the rising numbers of students. You were unsure if their assessment was correct so you have decided to find out how the size of the student population changed over the last 5 years and how it is expected to change in the coming 5 years. (p.1781)
Task type: High-complexity task
Task type definition: Consistent high difficulty evaluations from participants in pilot experiment.
Tasks:
1 Your friend has just finished reading a copy of a national newspaper in which there is mention of Internet music piracy. The article stresses how this is a global problem and affects compact disc sales worldwide. Unaware of the major effects, you decide to find out how and why music piracy influences the global music market. (p.1781)
Bergman, O., Whittaker, S. and Falk, N. (2014), Shared files: The retrieval perspective. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65: 1949-1963. doi: 10.1002/asi.23147
Jeon, G. Y. and Rieh, S. Y. (2013), The value of social search: Seeking collective personal experience in social Q&A. Procee3dings of the annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 50, 1-10.
Titus, P. A., & Everett, P. B. (1996). Consumer wayfinding tasks, strategies, and errors: An exploratory field study. Psychology & Marketing (1986-1998), 13(3), 265. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230397494?accountid=14244
Task type: Simulated shopping task
Task type definition: A list of products to locate in the shopping environment.
Tasks:
1 Cooking oil
2 Tomato paste
3 Household dyes
4 Dishwashing liquid
5 Grated cheese
6 Powdered soft drink mix
7 Furniture polish
8 Charcoal
9 Powdered milk
10 Vinegar
11 Bouillon cubes
12 Apple juice
13 Maple syrup
14 Whipped non-dairy topping
15 Frozen waffles
16 Peanut butter
17 Cream cheese
18 Limes
19 Canned tuna
20 Marshmallows
21 Frozen turkey
Mohageg, M. F. (1992). The influence of hypertext linking structures on the efficiency of information retrieval. Human Factors, 34, 351-367.
Task type: Retrieval tasks
Task type definition: Undefined
Tasks:
1 "What percentage of the Egyptian labor force is employed in the agriculture industry?" (p.359)
Lee, E., Whalen, T., McEwen, S., & Latremouille, S. (1984). Optimizing the design of menu pages for information retrieval. Ergonomics, 27, 1051-1069.
Task type: Question
Task type definition: "The information in a document was used to phrase one question." (p.1053)
Tasks:
1 "You are trying to find an apartment in Centre Ottawa. Find the necessary information if you are willing to pay between 250-275 dollars per month." (p.1053)
Task type: No-answer questions
Task type definition: "Questions for which no information existed in the database." (p.1055)
Task type: Specific
Task type definition: Undefined
Task type: General
Task type definition: Undefined
Barber, A.S., Barraclough, E.D., Gray, W.A. (1972). Medlars on-line search formulation and indexing. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Computing Laboratory, Technical Report Series, no. 34.
Pirolli, P., Card, S., Van Der Wege, M. (2001). The effects of information scent on visual search in the hyperbolic tree browser. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10(1), 20-53.
Task type: Simple retrieval
Task type definition: "Simple retrieval tasks required finding a leaf node in the tree." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 "Find Lake Victoria" (p.30)
2 "Find the Ebola virus" (p.30)
3 "Find a hammer" (p.30)
4 "Find the month of July" (p.30)
Task type: Complex retrieval
Task type definition: "Complex retrieval tasks also involved finding leaf nodes, but involved either some ambiguity and lack of familiarity or a degree of depth in the hierarchy." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 "Find a cross-cut saw" (p.30)
2 "Find a tomato" (p.30)
3 "Find the discipline of climatology" (p.30)
4 "Find a lobster" (p.30)
Task type: Local comparison
Task type definition: "Local comparison tasks involved comparison of several nodes that were reasonably close together in the tree structures." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 "Which religion has the most holidays in this list?" (p.30)
2 "Are there more fruits with pits or with cores?" (p.30)
3 "How many North American pro soccer teams are named after animals?" (p.30)
4 "Which digit appears in no BMW number?" (p.30)
Task type: Global comparison
Task type definition: "Global comparison tasks required comparison of several nodes in disparate parts of the tree." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 "Which Greek deity has the same name as a space mission?" (p.30)
2 "Find a big cat and an AL baseball team with the same name" (p.30)
3 "What characteristic can describe both smell and taste?" (p.30)
4 "How many Bonapartes ruled beyond the borders of France?" (p.30)
Hodkinson, C., Kiel, G., & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2000). Consumer web search behavior: Diagrammatic illustration of wayfinding on the web. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 52(5), 805-830.
Barber, A.S., Barraclough, D., & Cray, W.A. (1973). On-line information retrieval as a scientists tool. Information Storage and Retrieval. 9.429-440.
Bhavnani, S.K. (2002). Domain-specific search strategies for the effective retrieval of healthcare and shopping information. CHI EA '02, 610-611.
Task type: Tasks
Task type definition: "The participants were asked to perform eight tasks in two domains: four tasks related to healthcare, and four tasks related to online shopping. The task order was randomized within each domain, as was the order between the domains. Participants were told to perform the tasks, as they would normally do for themselves." (p.610)
Tasks:
1 "Tell me three categories of people who should or should not get a flu shot and why?" (p.610)
2 "Get two price quotes for a new digital-camera (3 or more megapixel and 2x zoom). Stop when you feel you have found the lowest prices." (p.610)
Card, S., Pirolli, P., Van Der Wege, M., Morrison, J., Reeder, R., Schraedley, P., Boshart, J. (2001). Information scent as a driver of Web Behavior Graphs: Results of a protocol analysis method for web usability. CHI '01, 498-505.
Task type: Simple, typical, tasks
Task type definition: Tasks were collected from real users through a survey: "Please try to recall a recent instance in which you found important information on the World Wide Web, information that led to a significant action or decision. Please describe that incident in enough detail so that we can visualize the situation." (p.499)
Tasks:
1 "You are the Chair of Comedic events for Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA. Your computer has just crashed and you have lost several advertisements for upcoming events. You know that The Second City tour is coming to your theater in the spring, but you do not know the precise date. Find the date the comedy troupe is playing on your campus. Also find a photograph of the group to put on the advertisement." (pp.499-500)
Pirolli, P., Fu, W., Reeder, R., Card, S. (2002). A user-tracing architecture for modeling interaction with the World Wide Web. AVI '02, 75-83.
Task type: Selected tasks
Task type definition: "Tasks for our study were selected from a database collected by a survey of over 2000 WWW users [Morrison, Pirolli, & Card, 2001]. Selected tasks focused on finding some specific information, such as the dates for an upcoming theatre event, or specific items, such as posters of characters that appeared in a recent movie." (p.76)
Tasks:
1 "After installing a state of the art entertainment center in your den and replacing the furniture and carpeting, your redecorating is almost complete. All that remains to be done is to purchase a set of movie posters to hang on the walls. Find a site where you can purchase the set of four Antz movie posters depicting the princess, the hero, the best friend, and the general." (p.76)
Chi, E., Rosien, A., Supattanasiri, G., Williams, A., Royer, C., Chow, C., Robles, E., Dalal, B., Chen, J., Cousins, S. (2003). The Bloodhound project: Automating discovery of web usability issues using the InfoScent simulator. CHI '03, 505-512.
Task type: Help.yahoo.com tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "You want Yahoo! to add your site to the Yahoo! Directory. Find some guidelines for writing a description of your site." (p.510)
2 "When is the playing season for Fantasy Football?" (p.510)
3 "You want to get driving directions to the airport, but you dont know the street address. How else can you get accurate directions there?" (p.510)
Task type: REI tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "You are planning a week-long hiking trip for this sum- mer, and you're on a budget. Find a single person tent for less than $120." (p.510)
2 "Find the location of the REI store nearest you." (p.510)
3 "Find yourself some warm, fairly heavy long underwear for the upcoming ski season." (p.510)
Task type: HivInSite tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "What are the impacts of the AIDS epidemic on Latin America?" (p.510)
2 "How often should HIV infected women have pap smears to check for the HIV-Associated malignancy, cervical cancer?" (p.510)
3 "What are some safer sex resources that are targeted towards teens?" (p.510)
Task type: Parcweb tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "Suppose this is your first time using Amberweb. Find some documentation that will help you figure out how to use it." (p.510)
2 "Find the 2002 Holiday Schedule" (p.510)
3 "Find out where you can download the latest DataGlyph Toolkit." (p.510)
Buchanan, G., Farrant, S., Jones, M., Thimbleby, H., Marsden, G., Pazzani, M., (2001). Improving mobile internet usability. WWW '01, 673-680.
Pirolli, P., Fu, W. (2003). SNIF-ACT: A model of information foraging on the World Wide Web. UM 9th International Conference, Johnstown, PA, USA.
Task type: User-generated
Task type definition: "tasks derived from a task database collected by survey from WWW users" (p.5)
Tasks:
1 "After installing a state of the art entertainment center in your den and replacing the furniture and carpeting, your redecorating is almost complete. All that remains to be done is to purchase a set of movie posters to hang on the walls. Find a site where you can purchase the set of four Antz movie posters depicting the princess, the hero, the best friend, and the general." (p.5)
2 "You are the Chair of Comedic events for Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA. Your computer has just crashed and you have lost several advertisements for upcoming events. You know that The Second City tour is coming to your theater in the spring, but you do not know the precise date. Find the date the comedy troupe is playing on your campus. Also find a photograph of the group to put on the advertisement." (p.5)
Lawrence, J., Burnett, M., Bellamy, R., et al. (2010). Reactive information foraging for evolving goals. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Software, Atlanta ACM, 2010, 25-23
Lambros, S. (2005). Investigating the applicability of information foraging theory to mobile web browsing. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Task type: Tasks
Task type definition: "These tasks were chosen because they required some browsing within the site. We did not want users to be able to complete the tasks by searching the news front-page." (p.12)
Tasks:
1 "Find a story describing Hungarys support for Croatias E.U. Bid " (p.12)
2 "Find a story about a trial of Nigeria officials " (p.12)
3 "What do BBC News Viewers have to say about improving Britains language skills? " (p.12)
4 "Find an article concerning one of the oldest stars in the universe " (p.12)
Zhimin, X. & Fan, L. (2014). Experimental study on mobile OPAC search and public computer's OPAC basic search as contrast. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, Information Acquisition and Seeking, 39(Spec.) 35-38.
Task type: Simple task
Task type definition: Can be completed without the "advanced search" function.
Tasks:
1 "According to the provided information, the title and the author, search for the book Introduction to Information Literacy and Information Retrieval." (p.36)
2 "Search for any subject picked by the experimental subjects." (p.36)
Zhou, M. (2014). Gender difference in web search perceptions and behavior: Does it vary by task performance? Computers & Education, 78, 174-184.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 How do bees choose where to build their new homes? (p.177)
2 What do you think are the implications for human life? (p.177)
Yuan, X., & Belkin, N.J. (2010). Evaluating an integrated system supporting multiple information-seeking strategies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 61(10), 1987-2010.
Task type: Finding news articles; scanning, then searching
Task type definition: "A person is very interested in one particular topic. She or he wants to find some good documents on this topic from a system which is composed of several databases, but has no idea about which of the many possible databases to search." (p.1991)
Tasks:
1 Topic: As a graduate student, you are asked to write an essay about high blood pressure for one of your courses.You are supposed to get information you need from a system that is composed of several databases. Each database has lots of news articles on a variety of topics, but you have no idea which databases are good on this topic.You believe it would be interesting to discover methods that reduce high blood pressure, and would like to collect news articles that identify different methods. Task: Please find as many different methods as possible. For each method, please copy the title or link of the article which discusses that method, and paste it to the answer box. For each article that you copy, please type or copy the method(s) that it identifies. If an article discusses more than one method, you only need to copy and paste the article once. If there are several articles which discuss the same methods, you only need to copy and paste one such article. (pl.1999)
Task type: Finding comments; searching, then scanning
Task type definition: "A person is in the process of preparing a talk for a conference. She or he recalls some germane comments from a known electronic book, but cannot remember the exact contents. She or he needs to find out the exact quotations. She or he recalls that a certain electronic book might be very helpful, but cannot remember the exact name of the book." (p.1992)
Tasks:
1 Topic: You are in the process of preparing a talk on the history of Rome. There are a lot of books available on this topic. But what you are interested in are the wars of Julius Caesar. You recall that some comments from an electronic book might be very useful for the talk. You cannot remember the exact name of the book. But you believe that it was published by a publisher in NewYork. The comments are about the strategies that Caesar used on the battle field to win the Battle of Pharsalia. You cannot remember the exact comments, but would like to quote them in your talk. Task: Please find the relevant comments from the book, copy the one best paragraph then paste it into the answer box. Also, please copy the title of the book then paste it to the answer box. (p.1999)
Urban, J., & Jose, J.M. (2005). Exploring results organisation for image searching. Proceedings of the IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT '05). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3585, 958-961.
Task type: Category search task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are a designer with responsibility for the design of leaflets on various subjects for the Wildlife Conservation (WLC). The leaflets are intended to raise awareness among the general public for endangered species and the preservation of their habitats. These leaflets [...] consisting of a body of text interspersed with up to 45 images selected on the basis of their appropriateness to the use to which the leaflets are put. You will be given a leaflet topic [...] Your task involves searching for as many images as you are able to find on the given topic, suitable for presentation in the leaflet. [...] You have 10 minutes to attempt this task. (p.960)
Task type: Design task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are a designer with responsibility for the design of leaflets on various subjects for the Wildlife Conservation (WLC). The leaflets are intended to raise awareness among the general public for endangered species and the preservation of their habitats. These leaflets [...] consisting of a body of text interspersed with up to 45 images selected on the basis of their appropriateness to the use to which the leaflets are put. Youre asked to select images for a leaflet for WLC presenting the organisation and a selection of their activities [...] Your task is to search for suitable images and then make a pre-selection of 3-5 images for the leaflet. (20 minutes) (p.960)
Shah, C., & Marchionini, G. (2010). Awareness in collaborative information seeking. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 61(10), 1970-1986.
Task type: Exploratory tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 A leading newspaper has hired your team to create a comprehensive report on the causes and consequences of the current economic recession in the U.S.As a part of your contract, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find. To prepare this report, search and visit any Web site that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report.You may also want to save the relevant Web sites as bookmarks, but remember, your main objective here is to collect as many relevant snippets as possible. Your report on this topic should address the following issues: reasons behind this recession, effects on some major areas, such as healthcare, home ownership, and financial sector (stock market), unemployment statistics over a period of time, proposal, execution, and effects of the economy stimulation plan, and peoples opinions and reactions on economys downfall.
2 The College Network News Channel wants to do a documentary on the effects of social networking services and software.Your team is responsible for collecting various relevant information (including statistics) from the Web. As a part of your assignment, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find. To prepare this report, search and visit any Web site that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report.You may also want to save the relevant Web sites as bookmarks, but remember, your main objective here is to collect as many relevant snippets as possible. Your report on this topic should address the following issues: emergence and spread of social networking sites, such as MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and del.icio.us, statistics about popularity of such sites (How many users? How much time they spend? How much content?), impacts on students and professionals, commerce around these sites (How do they make money? How do users use them to make money?), and examples of usage of such services in various domains, such as healthcare and politics.
Saito, H., Terai, H., Egusa, Y., Takaku, M., Miwa, M., & Kando, N. (2009). How task types and user eperiences affect information-seeking behavior on the web: Using eye-tracking and client-side search logs. Proceedings of the SIGIR 2009 Workshop on Understanding the User (UUIR), 19-22.
Joho, H., Birbeck, R.D., & Jose, J.M. (2007). An ostensive browsing and searching on the web. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Context-Based Information Retrieval, 81-92.
Task type: Background search task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to find general background information on a topic. In our experiment, participants were asked to find the pages which provide information about the recent change of student populations." (p.84)
Task type: Decision-making task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to make a decision about a topic. In our experiment, participants were asked to find the best Hi-Fi speakers available in a target price. Participants were encouraged to compare the speakers details in the decision making process. Task 1 and 2 were based on the descriptions originally proposed by [White, Jose, and Ruthven (2005)]." (p.84)
Task type: Many items task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to find as many items as they feel necessary about a certain topic. In this experiment, the task involved finding out interesting things to do at the city of Kyoto in Japan for a free weekend there. This task was a variant of aspectual search devised in the Interactive Track of TREC-7." (p.84)
Hansen, P., & Karlgren, J. (2005). Effects of foreign language and task scenario on relevance assessment. Journal of Documentation, 61(5), 623-639.
Task type: News monitoring
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Domain: Monitoring news and translation services; Work-task: Among your daily work-tasks you monitor and translate news information within a specific areas based on profiles set up by external customers. Your customers are usually companies and public institutions.; Topic: Genes and diseases; Search task: You have been assigned to monitor incoming news items that describe genes, which cause disease on humans. The customer especially wants documents that identify or report the discovery of a gene that is the source of any type of disease, syndrome, and behavioural or developmental disorder in humans. Any information or document that reports the discovery of a defective gene that causes problems in humans is relevant. Documents that describe diseases and disorders caused by the absence of a gene are not relevant. (p.638)
Task type: Informaiton specialist/consultant
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Domain: Information specialist/consultant; Search task: Your task is to write a report on genes, which are the source of or contribute to the cause of diseases or developmental disorders in human beings. Information relevant in order to accomplish your task is documents that report and describes how a defective gene can cause illness and disease in humans is relevant. Documents that describe the absence of a gene are not relevant. (p.638)
Task type: Vanilla CLEF
Task type definition: Not defined; CLEF topics were administered without change
Tasks:
1 Title: Genes and diseases; Description: What genes have been identified that are the source of or contribute to the cause of diseases or developmental disorders in human beings?; Narrative: A document that identifies a gene or reports that a gene has been discovered that is the source of any type of disease, syndrome, behavioural or developmental disorder in humans is relevant. Any document that reports the discovery of a defective gene that causes problems in humans is relevant, but reports of diseases and disorders that are caused by the absence of a gene are not relevant (p.629)
2 Title: European campaigns against racism; Description: Find documents that talk about campaigns against racism in Europe; Narrative: Relevant documents describe informative or educational campaigns against racism (ethnic or religious, or against immigrants) in Europe. Documents should refer to organized campaigns rather than reporting mere opinions against racism (p.629)
3 Title: Treasure hunting; Description: Find documents about treasure hunters and treasure-hunting activities; Narrative: Identify types of current treasure-hunting activities such as searching for gold, digging for buried relics, or searching underwater for sunken galleons (p.629)
4 Title: Hunger strikes; Description: Documents will report any information relating to a hunger strike attempted in order to attract attention to a cause; Narrative: Identify instances where a hunger strike has been initiated, including the reason for the strike, and the outcome if known (p.629)
Task type: Terse
Task type definition: Not defined; a brief version of the CLEF topics
Tasks:
1 Search task: What genes have been identified that are the source of or contribute to the cause of diseases or developmental disorders in human beings? (p.638)
Gwizdka, J. (2010). Distribution of cognitive load in web search. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 61(11), 2167-2187.
Task type: Simple fact finding task (known item search)
Task type definition: FF task: "the goal... is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)"; Simple: "the information need is satisfied by a single, independent piece of information (by definition, simple task is of the fact finding type)" (p.2173)
Tasks:
1 "You love history and, in particular, you are interested in the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights).You have read about their period of power, and now you want to learn more about their decline. What year was the Order defeated in a battle by a Polish-Lithuanian army?" (p.2186)
Task type: Parallel fact finding task (known item search)
Task type definition: FF task: "the goal... is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)"; Parallel: "the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy; this is a breadth search" (p.2173)
Tasks:
1 "As a history buff, you have heard of the quiet revolution, the peaceful revolution and the velvet revolution. For a skill-testing question to win an iPod you have been asked how they differ from the April 19th revolution." (p.2186)
Task type: Hierarchical fact finding task (known item search)
Task type definition: FF task: "the goal... is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)"; Hierarchical: "the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept; this is a depth search, where a single topic is explored" (p.2173)
Tasks:
1 "A friend has just sent an email from an Internet caf in the southern USA where she is on a hiking trip. She tells you that she has just stepped into an anthill of small red ants and has a large number of painful bites on her leg. She wants to know what species of ants they are likely to be, how dangerous they are and what she can do about the bites. What will you tell her?" (p.2186)
Task type: Hierarchical information gathering task (topical search)
Task type definition: IG task: "the goal... is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic"; Simple: "the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept; this is a depth search, where a single topic is explored" (p.2173)
Tasks:
1 "You recently heard about the book "Fast Food Nation," and it has really influenced the way you think about your diet.You note in particular the amount and types of food additives contained in the things that you eat every day. Now you want to understand which food additives pose a risk to your physical health, and are likely to be listed on grocery store labels." (p.2186)
Task type: Parallel information gathering task (topical search)
Task type definition: IG task: "the goal... is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic"; Parallel: "the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy; this is a breadth search" (p.2173)
Tasks:
1 "Friends are planning to build a new house and have heard that using solar energy panels for heating can save a lot of money. Since they do not know anything about home heating and the issues involved, they have asked for your help.You are uncertain as well, and do some research to identify some issues that need to be considered in deciding between more conventional methods of home heating and solar panels." (p.2186)
Balatsoukas, P., & Demian, P. (2010). Effects of granularity of search results on the relevance judgment behavior of engineers: Building systems for retrieval and understanding of context. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 60(3), 453-467.
Task type: Fact finding
Task type definition: "The objective is to find a specific piece of information" (p.462)
Tasks:
1 Please find information about the renovation of historical buildings. (p.462)
Task type: Decision making
Task type definition: "The objective is to select the best option among alternatives" (p.462)
Tasks:
1 You need to develop an action plan for the renovation of historical buildings in the area of Leicestershire. You have been given a budget of 3000.000. The renovation plan also should involve the installation of green technologies for lowering the carbon footprint of the building. Which of the past project plans that dealt with the renovation of historical buildings could be considered for reuse in the present situation? (p.462)
Kim, J. (2012). Scenarios in information seeking and information retrieval research: A methodological application and discussion. Library & Information Science Research, 34(4), 300-307.
Xie, I., & Joo, S. (2010). Tales from the field: Search strategies applied in web searching. Future Internet, 2(3), 259-281.
Task type: Known-item search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 I want to know if the UW-Milwaukee library has a copy of the book 'History of Racine and Kenosha Counties from 1879'.
Task type: Specific information search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 I'd like to find out the conditions of two local ski hills.
Task type: Subject search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 I want to learn more about both the positive and negative effects that caffeine has on the body.
Weideman, M., & Strumpfer, C. (2004). The effect of search engine keyword choice and demographic features on Internet searching success. Information Technology and Libraries, 23(2), 58-65.
Borlund, P., & Dreier, S. (2014). An investigation of the search behaviour associated with Ingwersen's three types of information needs. Information Processing & Management, 50(4), 493-507.
Task type: Verificative information need
Task type definition: "You would like to check a specific piece of information" (p.497)
Task type: Conscious topical information need
Task type definition: "You would like to find information about a topic you are familiar with" (p.497)
Task type: Muddled topical information need
Task type definition: "You would like to explore an unknown topic" (p.497)
Tao, Y., & Tombros, A.(2014). Investigating collaborative sensemaking behavior in collaborative information seeking. IEEE Computer, 47(3), 38-45.
Task type: Complex, exploratory topic-research tasks
Task type definition: "The following criteria [were used] for designing CIS tasks that require collaborative sensemaking: Objectivethe findings will be used to create a shared understanding, make a decision, or produce a knowledge product/representation; Information needthe target information will be uncertain and vague, ill-structured, multifaceted, or have a low level of specificity; Information-seeking processresults gathering will require multiple search sessions and multiple information sources, or will involve learning, investigation, and discovery; and Topicparticipants will lack prior knowledge of subject matter." (p.40)
Tasks:
1 "Your group is preparing for a 20-minute presentation about how the global expansion of ideas and technologies has influenced human rights. Now you may want to research the topic on the Web and make an outline for the presentation together. Please jot down the main points you would like to make in your presentation and related information that supports your points." (p.40)
Aula, A., & Russell, D.M. (2008). Complex and exploratory web search. Proceedings of the Information Seeking Support Systems Workshop (ISSS 2008). http://ils.unc.edu/ISSS/papers/papers/aula.pdf.
Kinley, K., Tjondronegoro, D., Partridge, H., & Edwards, S. (2014). Modeling users' web search behavior and their cognitive styles. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 65(6), 1107-1123.
Task type: Factual task
Task type definition: Fact-finding search task
Tasks:
1 "You have recently moved to Austin, Texas, The U.S., and would like to know the relevant laws passed by the Texas State government regarding child safety while travelling in vehicles. Identify three such rules." (p.1111)
Task type: Exploratory task
Task type definition: No specific answers
Tasks:
1 "You, with your two friends, are planning a trek for one week in Solukhumbu in Nepal. The trekking will occur next month. You are told that tourists trekking in the place may get high-altitude illness. You decide that you should know more about the place, and the symptoms, seriousness and prevention of high-altitude sickness." (p.1111)
Task type: Abstract task
Task type definition: "In an abstract task, the information need is abstract and a concrete, direct solution may not exist. The abstract search task is more open-ended than the exploratory task." (p.1112)
Tasks:
1 "You recently heard about the Bermuda Triangle mystery, and you are curious and want to know more about it. So you want to search any relevant information (articles, images and videos) about it and what effect it has on the travelers in the region." (p.1111)
Sahib, N.G., Tombros, A., & Stockman, T. (2014). Investigating the behavior of visually impaired users for multi-session search tasks. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 65(1), 69-83.
Task type: Broad simulated work task
Task type definition: Borlund, P. (2003). The IIR evaluation model: A framework for evaluation of interactive information retrieval systems. Information Research, 8(3). Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/8-3/paper152.html
Tasks:
1 "You have always wanted to visit Australia after hearing great things about the country. You might have some days off soon and you are thinking of traveling to Australia. Find out more about the country, the cities you can visit, and things to do there." (p.75)
Task type: Refined task
Task type definition: Used to refine information need.
Tasks:
1 " You have now confirmed your travel plans and know you will be staying in Australia for 7 days. Using the information you encountered in the previous session and new information, make a rough schedule of how you would like to spend your days there." (p.75)
Liu, P., & Li, Z. (2012). Task complexity: A review and conceptualization framework. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 42, 553-568.
Wood, R.E., Mento, A.J., & Locke, E.A. (1987). Task complexity as a moderator of goal effects: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), 416-425.
Capra, R.G., III, & Perez-Quinones, M.A. (2005). Using Web search engines to find and refind information. IEEE Computer, 38(10), 36-42.
Task type: Web search tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Look up the meaning of the word salubrious
2 Look up the meaning of the word frugivorous
3 Find the phone number for the Mish Mish art supply store in downtown Blacksburg, VA
4 Find a flight from Roanoke, VA, to Chicago, IL, on Dec. 1, returning on Dec. 4
5 Find a flight from Roanoke, VA, to Chicago, IL, on Dec. 14, returning on Dec. 19
6 Find instructions about how to solve Rubiks cube
7 Find the phone number for the Kroger grocery store in Blacksburg near the Math Emporium
8 Find the phone number for the Kroger grocery store in Blacksburg on South Main Street near the El Guadalupe restaurant
9 Find the score from the most recent Atlanta Falcons football game
10 Find todays starting times for a movie you want to see
11 Find the current price for Microsoft stock
12 Go to Dr. Staskos Web site at Georgia Tech
13 Find tomorrows high and low temperatures for Blacksburg
14 Find out the last day of classes for the spring 2004 semester
15 Find out when break is during the spring 2004 semester
16 Find out how to get from the Blacksburg Municipal Golf Course to Macados restaurant on University Blvd.
Kumpulainen, S., & Jarvelin, K. (2010). Information interaction in molecular medicine: Integrated use of multiple channels. Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context (IIiX '10), 95-104.
Task type: Routine tasks
Task type definition: "Complexity was assessed on the basis of the knowledge the shadowees had when beginning each task on the tools/services to be used on the task, the protocol to be used (know how) and on the assumed outcome of the task. If all of these aspects were known, the task was classified as routine" (p.97)
Task type: Semi-complex tasks
Task type definition: "Complexity was assessed on the basis of the knowledge the shadowees had when beginning each task on the tools/services to be used on the task, the protocol to be used (know how) and on the assumed outcome of the task... If two of these were known, the task was semi-complex" (p.97)
Task type: Complex tasks
Task type definition: "Complexity was assessed on the basis of the knowledge the shadowees had when beginning each task on the tools/services to be used on the task, the protocol to be used (know how) and on the assumed outcome of the task... If one or none were known, the task was complex." (p.97)
Kelly, D., Kantor, P., Morse, E., Scholtz, J., & Sun, Y. (2006). User-centered evaluation of interactive question answering systems. Proceedings of the Interactive Question Answering (IQA) workshop at HLT-NAACL 2006, 49-56.
Task type: task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Before a U.S. military presence is reestablished in [country], a current, thorough study of [country] chemical weapons program must be developed. Your task is to produce a report for the Secretary of the United States Navy regarding general information on [country] and the production of chemical weapons. Provide information regarding [country] access to chemical weapons research, their current capabilities to use and deploy chemical weapons, reported stockpiles, potential development for the next few years, any assistance they have received for their chemical weapons program, and the impact that this information will have on the United States. Please add any other related information to your report.
Hung, T.-Y. (2005). Search moves and tactics for image retrieval in the field of journalism: A pilot study. Journal of Education Media & Library Sciences, 42(30), 329-346.
Task type: Specific search
Task type definition: "Finding images of individually named person, group, thing, event, location, or action." (p. 335)
Tasks:
1 You are writing a story on Tiger Woods for a sports magazine. For this report, you need to find some photos of Tiger Wood as illustrations for your story.
Task type: General search
Task type definition: "Finding images of kind of person, group, thing, event, place, condition, or action." (p. 335)
Tasks:
1 You are reporting on the crisis in the Middle East for the New York Times. For this report, you need to find some photos regarding this topic to be used as illustrations.
Task type: Subjetive search
Task type definition: "Finding images of having emotional or abstract concepts." (p. 335)
Tasks:
1 You are editing a special report on the topic of "Peace" and you need to find some photos to illustrate the meaning of "peace".
Choi, Y., & Rasmussen, E.M. (2002). User's relevance criteria in image retrieval in American history. Information Processing and Management, 38(5), 695-726.
Task type: image search
Task type definition: not defined
Chen, H. l. (2001). An analysis of image queries in the field of art history. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(3), 260-273.
Task type: image search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The instructor asked the students to include at least 20 images in the paper, and required that their topics be in the context of medieval art and approved by the instructor." (p. 263)
Kelly, D., Harper, J., & Landau, B. (2008). Questionnaire mode effects in interactive information retrieval experiments. Information Processing and Management, 44, 122-141.
Task type: search topic
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Imagine that you are enrolled in an environmental sciences course and you are interested in learning more about tropical storms (hurricanes and typhoons). It seems that tropical storms are becoming more destructive and you decide to investigate past storms. Your instructor asks you to prepare a short, 5-page paper investigating past tropical storms. Your instructor asks you to use historical newspaper articles as your sources of information and to collect comprehensive information on different tropical storms and impacts of each storm. Specifically your goal is to identify different tropical storms that have caused property damage and/or loss of life, and to find as much information as possible about each storm.
Zhang, X., Anghelescu, H.G.B. & Yuan, X. (2005). Domain knowledge, search behaviour, and search effectiveness of engineering and science students: an exploratory study. Information Research, 10(2),
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Borlund, P. (2000). Experimental components for the evaluation of interactive information retrieval systems. Journal of Documentation, 56(1), 71-90.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Simulated work task situation: After your graduation you will be looking for a job in industry. You want information to help you focus your future job seeking. You know it pays to know the market. You would like to find some information about employment patterns in industry and what kind of qualifications employers will be looking for from future employees.
Indicative request: Find for instance something about future employment trends in industry, i.e. areas of growth and decline.
Russell, D. M., & Grimes, C. (2007). Assigned tasks are not the same as self-chosen Web search tasks. In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '07), 83-91.
Task type: general Web search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 For the following task, you will be asked to use Google to search for something on the Web. Please take a moment to think of a topic, Web site, or piece of information you would like to search for. It should be something you are genuinely interested in finding or learning about.
Task type: local information
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Suppose you recently moved and you would like to find the closest Stop N Shop grocery store to your new home. Use Google to search for the closest Stop N Shop grocery store. Please use 80012 as your zip code. What is the street address of the Stop N Shop nearest to your new home?
Task type: product information
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: image search
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: news search
Task type definition: not defined
Moraveji, N., Morris, M.R., Morris, D., Czerwinski, M., & Riche, N. (2011). ClassSearch: Facilitating the development of web search skills through social learning. Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '11), 1797-1806.
Task type: exploratory tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: fact-finding tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Jochmann-Mannak, H., Huibers, T., Lentz, L., & Sanders, T. (2010). Children searching information on the Internet: Performance on children's interfaces compared to Google. Workshop on Accessible Search Systems, 33rd International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 1-9.
Task type: fact-based search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Which day of the week will the Vice-Presidents birthday be on next year?
"We first asked the children to the date of our Queens birthday." (p. 4)
Wang, P. & Soergel, D. (1998). A cognitive model of document use during a research project. Study I. Document selection. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(2), 115-133.
Task type: Search
Task type definition: not defined
Spink, A., Wilson, T.D., Ford, N., Foster, A., & Ellis, D. (2002). Information seeking and mediated searching study. Part 3. Successive searching. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 53(9), 716-727.
Task type: Mediated Search
Task type definition: not defined
Huang, M. (2003). Pausal behavior of end-users in online searching. Information Processing & Management, 39(3), 425-444.
Task type: search
Task type definition: not defined
Bowler, L. (2009). Genres of search: A concept for understanding successive search behavior. Canadian Journal of Information Science, 33(3), 119-140.
Task type: Structural search
Task type definition: "Participants searched for and explored widiin metatools, such as encyclopedias, Wikipedia, and the table of contents in books. This type of search was used to build a conceptual understanding of the topic." (p. 132)
Task type: Details search
Task type definition: "Participants searched for factual information in chapters and articles. The results of this type of search were used as content for the research paper." (p. 132)
Task type: Author-biography search
Task type definition: "At the request of the teacher, participants had to determine the credibility of authors in order be able to reference an information source in their research paper. To do so they ran separate searches just to find biographical information on the authors." (p. 132)
Task type: Re-finding search
Task type definition: "When gathering information, some students forgot to note where they had found quotes or important ideas. They had to re-run their searches, but this time to find specific text that they knew existed." (p. 132)
Task type: "How to cite" search
Task type definition: "This type of search was used to find instructions on how to cite sources." (p. 132)
Task type: "Padding the bibliography" search
Task type definition: "they launched a new search, essentially to find material to pad the bibliography." (p. 133)
Task type: Image search
Task type definition: "Participants searched in image databases for visual clues that might provide clues for fiirther text searches (such as the date or the name of a queen either found within an image of the queen or used to label the image)." (p. 133)
Singer, G., Norbisrath, U., Vainikko, E., Kikkas, H., & Lewandowski, D. (2011). Search-logger analyzing exploratory search tasks. In Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 751-756.
Task type: look-up tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Please find the date when Mozart was born.
2 What is the corresponding value of 20.000 Estonian Kroons in USD?
3 When was Penicillin invented and by whom?
4 How do you plan a budget but still nice wedding; write down the 20 most important points to consider.
Task type: exploratory search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 (v) Your daughter Anna is graduating from high-school and wants to study abroad in the eld of either political sci- ences or architecture. You can support her with 2000 Euro per month. Which universities can you recommend that are a ordable and will o er Anna the best career perspectives af- ter graduating? Please compile a list of 10 universities that you can recommend.
(vi) Mr Johnson and his family are planning a trip to Paris. Please write a summary of the following: What cul- tural events are there (for example in August 2010)? What sightseeing to do? Cover also hotels, ights, traveling to Paris, weather.
(vii) Barbara has been o ered a well paid position in Kabul, Afghanistan. She wants to know, how risky it is to live in Kabul at the moment. Compile enough information to have a good indication for the risk. Please compile at least half a page of compelling facts.
Zhang, Y., Wang, P., Heaton, A., & Winkler, H. (2012). Health information searching behavior in MedlinePlus and the impact of tasks. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium, 641-650
Task type: search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. Since its prohibition in 1937, marijuanas use as a medicine became restricted. However, in recent years, some states (e.g., California) legalized the smoking of marijuana by certain patients. Thus medical marijuana has become a subject of contentious debate. You want to understand the arguments for and against the use of marijuana for medical purposes. Therefore, you decide to do some research on this subject using MedlinePlus.
2. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the clinical association between hypertension and diabetes. You want to know what is the relation between diabetes, Type I diabetes and Type II diabetes respectively, and hypertension? And how do they affect each other. You decide to use MedlinePlus to find as much information as you can to make sense of these questions.
3. Imagine that a friend of yours is studying the roles that insulin plays in the liver and the kidney. He particularly wants to know what is the primary function of the liver and the kidney. What are the roles of insulin in the liver and kidney respectively, and why would insulin be needed there? Is insulin related to liver and kidney diseases? You decide to use MedlinePlus to find information to help him answer these questions.
Toms, E. G. & Latter, C. How consumers search for health information. Health Informatics Journal, 13(3): 223-235.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1 Tell me three categories of people who should or should not get a fl u shot and why.
2 Find a website likely to contain reliable information on the effect of secondhand smoke. 3 List two of the generally recommended treatments for (fill in the blank with a health-related matter that interests you). 4 Identify two pros or cons of taking large doses of (fill in the blank with a drug or treatment or remedy that interests you).
Satio H., & Miwa K. (2002). A cognitive study of information seeking processes in the WWW: The effects of searcher's knowledge and experience. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, 1, 321-327.
Task type: General task
Task type definition: "a task having a solution not requiring special knowledge." (p. 323)
Tasks:
1 In a traditional South Korean wedding, seeds of vegetables are thrown toward the bridal couple. What are seeds of plants? Also why the seeds were thrown?
Task type: Specific task
Task type definition: "a task having a solution requiring knowledge of a specific domain." (p. 323)
Tasks:
1 The ecology of a certain living thing, which has became clear from an incident in a foreign country, has given a shock to researchers in related fields. The living thing has a strong poison to affect human bodies. Although it is phytoplankton, it has different characteristics from the ordinary type of phytoplankton. The main feature of this living thing is to morph 24 times. Find out the formal name of this living thing. In addition, find out the literal meaning of the formal name, alias of the formal name, and name of the person who discovered the fearful ecology of the living thing.
Liu, C., Gwizdka, J., & Belkin, N. (2010). Analysis of query reformulation types on different search tasks. In proceedings of the 2010 iSchool iConference, 477-485.
Task type: Fact Finding (FF)
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)." (p. 1)
Task type: Information Gathering (IG)
Task type definition: "The goal of an information gathering task is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic." (p. 1)
Joo, S. & Lee, J. Y. (2011). Assessing effectiveness of query reformulations: Analysis of user-generated information retrieval diaries. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48(1), 1-2.
Smith, C. (2008). Searcher adaptation: A response to topic difficulty. In Proceedings of the 71rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 45(1), 1-10.
Task type: search topic
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "to find as many good information sources as possible for an unspecified boss." (p. 2)
Drinking water helps you to stay well.
It is easy to tire when driving a car.
Women boxers often receive a small purse
Mints and treats that look like coins are favorite holiday candies.
In some cultures it is common to hire a band for a wedding.
Conductors train for many years before reaching a professional level.
The option to purchase a bull is an investment alternative for farmers.
It is difficult to secure a mortgage or insurance for property directly on the bank of a river.
Fishermen find it difficult to earn a net profit.
For security, conductors carry radios as they move between stations.
Firemen can make progress on the ladder of the profession.
It is difficult to produce containers that maintain the freshness of vegetables during shipping.
Sihvonen, A. & Vakkari, P. (2004). Subject knowledge, thesaurus-assisted query expansion and search success. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer-Assisted Information Retrieval (RIAO '04), 393-404.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Task 1. Find documents about "email as a forum for teaching critical thinking/argumentation" for writing an assignment for a course in pedagogics on Open learning environments and multiform teaching.
2 Task 2. You are acting as a member of a team designing a leaning environment. For that purpose you are searching for documents about "Relations between learning conceptions and virtual learning environments".
Bates, M. J. (1977). Factors affecting subject catalog search success. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 28(3), 161-169.
Task type: search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "...they were asked to imagine themselves in a situation where they were unable to find a book in the library (described by means of its title and abstract, but no author) which had been recommended to them by a professor as useful for a paper they were writing. They were, therefore, to have turned to the subject catalog to try to find another book on the very same subject. What term would they use in their search?" (pp. 162-163)
Task type:
Task type definition:
Marchionini, G. & Mu, X. (2003). User studies informing E-table interfaces. Information Processing & Management, 39(4), 561-579.
Task type: task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 What was the population of Utah in 1994?
In 1996, what was the difference in life expectancy between 30 year old white males and 30 year old white females?
Across all groups, what happens to the difference in life expectancy between males and females as people age?
Coiera, E. W. & Vickland, V. (2008). Is Relevance Relevant? User Relevance Ratings May Not Predict the Impact of Internet Search on Decision Outcomes. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15(4), 542-545.
Task type: decision tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. We hear of people going on low carbohydrate and high protein diets, such as the Atkins diet, to lose weight. Is there evidence to support that low carbohydrate, high protein diets result in greater long-term weight loss than conventional low energy, low fat diets?
2. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer found in women. Is there evidence indicating an increased chance of developing breast cancer for women who have a family history of breast cancer?
3. Many people use complementary therapies when they are sick or as preventive measures. Is there evidence to support the taking of vitamin C supplements to help prevent the common cold?
4. We know that we can catch AIDS from bodily fluids, such as from needle sharing, having unprotected sex and breast-feeding. We also know that some diseases can be transmitted by mosquito bites. Is there evidence that we can get AIDS from a mosquito bite?
Wang, X. & Erdelez, S. (2013). Medical image users' search tactics across different search tasks. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-4.
Task type: General image search task
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: Specific image search task
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: Abstract image search task
Task type definition: not defined
Akeroyd, J. (1990). Information Seeking in Online Catalogues. Journal of Documentation, 46(1), 33-52.
Task type: Known-item searches
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Find the following books:
Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. The empire strikes back. Husband, C., ed. 'Race' in Britain.
Dixon, D. Constitutionalising racism: the British Nationality Bill. Critical Social Policy, 12, 94-99.
Bryan, B. et a!., eds. The heart of the race: black women's lives in Britain. Cohen, P. and Barns, H., eds. Multi racist Britain.
Jacobs, S. Race, empire and the welfare state; council housing and racism. Critical Social Policy, 13.
Lesson, J. and Gray, J. Women and medicine.
Task type: Subject searches
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. You are a student undertaking a final year design project. The project is about devising a fire alarm system. What information can you find from the catalogue on such systems or any similar alarm systems?
2. You are to write an essay on trade union democracy. Your tutor is particularly interested in recent government legislation and the response of the TUC.
3. What are the problems of using low grade aggregates in road construction? Haven't the Road Research Laboratory done work on this?
4. You are to do a project on transportation in country areas. What is in the catalogue?
5. You are working with a new computer system which is programmed in a language called ZOPL. You want to learn it. What can you find in the library?
Wu, Z., Ramsden, A., Zhao, D. (1995). The user perspective of the ELINOR electronic library. Aslib Proceedings, 47(1), 13-22.
Task type: searching
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: browsing
Task type definition: not defined
Senguptay, A. & Dillon, A. (1997). Query by templates: a generalized approach for visual query formulation for text dominated databases. In Proceedings of IEEE International Forum on Research and Technology Advances in Digital Libraries (pp. 36-47). Los Almaitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society
Task type: Search Query
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. Find the poems written by "Shakespeare".
2. How many poems were written in the Middle English Period age (MEP)?
3. Find all the poems written in the Early 19th Century period (C19A) that have the word "burning" in the first line.
4. Find the poems that have the word "hate" in the title and the word "love" in the first line.
5. Find the poems not written by "Hemans" that have the word "wreck" somewhere in a stanza.
6. Find the poems written during the Early 18th Century (C18A) which have the word "love" in the collection title, as well as in the poem title, but not in the first line.
7. Find the poems that have the phrase "expostulation and reply" anywhere in the body of the poem.
8. Find the poems written by Keats that do not have the word "mortal" in any of the stanzas.
9. Find the poems written by Shakespeare that has the phrase "to be or not to be" somewhere in the poem body.
10. Write a query of your own from your interest in poems, and indicate the number of matches you found for that query.
Bilal, D. (2013). Comparing Google's readability of search results to the Flesch Readability Formulae: A preliminary analysis on children's search queries. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50, Article No. 30.
Task type: Search Query
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. Search for material on the Muslim pilgrimage Hajj
2. Find information about minority games in Britain
3. How do you find which direction is south using the sun and a stick?
4. Research high blood pressure
5. Choose a topic related to medieval times 6. Pick a topic to research. It could be a trend, a sports figure, anything you want that I approve... If you prefer not to pick a topic, you can research one of the following topics: Tarantulas, Clint Dempsey, tarantula habitat, social networking, underground railroad, or find information about oil reserves. 7. How does the heart work?
8. For a class, you need to learn about medicines that can help people stop smoking. Using the Internet find three of these medicines.
9. In what year was the speed skating event was introduced in the modern Olympics?
10. How do the types of dreams and daydreams affect how we sleep?
11. Environmentalists are concerned that the ozone layer is being depleted. Find how the lack of ozone in the earths atmosphere is affecting our forests.
Dorn, B. Stankiewicz, A. & Roggi, C. (2013). Lost while Searching: Difficulties in Information Seeking among End-User Programmers. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-10.
Task type: search
Task type definition: "Search is an attempt to find information using keywords or phrases inserted into the text-area of a search tool (either internal to the application software or within a website)." (p. 5)
Task type: browse
Task type definition: "Browse involves use of a built-in selection feature (a list, collapsible menu, or hyperlink) within possibly useful content. Each browse event must yield a result displayed in the primary content area of the tool." (p. 5)
Gwizdka, J. (2013). Searchers Switch Tactics Under Increased Mental Load. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-3.
Task type: fact-finding task
Task type definition: "finding a fact that satisfied specified criteria" (p. 2)
Tasks:
1 name of a hotel located close to an airport
Task type: information gathering tasks
Task type definition: "information gathering about several items and selecting those that satisfied several criteria" (p. 2)
Tasks:
1 "finding three museums that collectively carried collections of three different kinds" (p. 2)
Liu, J., Kim, C. S., & Creel, C. (2013). Why Do Users Feel Search Task Difficult? In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-4.
Task type: information tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The four tasks topics were about: 1) searching for graduate school admission requirements; 2) gathering information to make a Wikipedia entry for someone; 3) finding at least one hat-trick soccer player in Italian series A in 2010-2011; and 4) collecting articles about Alfred Whiteheads simple location concept." (p. 2)
Crescenzi, A., Capra, R., & Arguello, J. (2013). Time Pressure, User Satisfaction and Task Difficulty. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-4.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Task: You recently became involved with a conservation group that picks-up trash from local waterways. One of the group members told you that your work was important because it helps keep pollution out of the ocean. What are some of the different types of ocean pollutants? What environmental risks and associated with each pollutant?
Xie, I., Joo, S., & Bennett-Kapusniak, R. (2013). User Engagement and System Support in the Search Process: User dominated, system dominated and balanced search tactics. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-4.
Li, Y. & Hu, D. (2013). Interactive Retrieval Using Simulated versus Real Work Task Situations: Differences in Sub-facets of Tasks and Interaction Performance. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-10.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Simulated work task situations: You can imagine you are a representative to the national peoples congress. The congress will meet soon and you are interested in the reformation of value-added tax and would like to finish a proposal on that. To the end, you need to learn the research on it and experts different viewpoints, and attempt to incorporate them into your proposal.
Search task: Try your best to search CNKI and save useful search results. You will have 15 minutes to search.

Real work task situation: Please select a task you need to finish recently, such as a paper, an assignment, or a research project, and similar others. You need to search information in order to finish the task.
Search task: Try your best to search CNKI and save useful search results. You will have 15 minutes to search.
Yue, Z., Han, S., & He, D. (2013). An Investigation of the Query Behavior in Task-based Collaborative Exploratory Web Search. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-10.
Task type: a recall-oriented information-gathering task (exploratory web search tasks)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 The College Network News Channel wants to do a documentary on the effects of social networking services and software. Your team is responsible for collecting various relevant information about this topic from the Web. Your goal is to collect information for preparing a report on this topic and it should address the following issues: Emergence and spread of social networking sites, such as MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and del.icio.us, statistics about popularity of such sites (How many users? How much time they spend? How much content?), impacts on students and professionals, commerce around these sites (How do they make money? How do users use them to make money?), and examples of usage of such services in various domains, such as health-care and politics." To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline above. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report. You may also want to save the relevant websites as bookmarks. Remember your main objective here is to collect as many relevant snippets as possible.
Task type: a utility-based decision-making task (exploratory web search tasks)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 You and your friend are planning a four-day vacation in Helsinki, Finland from Dec 23th - 26th. You want to search for information about how you will spend your vacation in Finland. Assume that your flights are booked (leaving the US on the 22th of Dec and returning to the US on the 27th of Dec) and your hotels are booked too. But you have not yet planned the activities for your vacation. Your goal is to come up with a travel plan of things you will be doing on your vacation. You have certain constraints as follows: You can only spend 200 Euros (100 Euros per person). Of all the activities your group chooses for the vacation, one has to be an outdoor activity, the other is a dining activity, and the third is a cultural activity. You are free to choose any other types of activities in addition to these three. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your travel plan. You may also want to save the relevant websites as bookmarks.
Capra, R., Chen, A. T., McArthur, E., & Davis, N. (2013). Searcher Actions and Strategies in Asynchronous Collaborative Search. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-10.
Task type: asynchronous collaborative search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 For this task, imagine that you are taking an Environmental Studies class here at UNC. As part of the class, your instructor has given you a research assignment to do in small groups. The goal of the assignment is to find articles that will help you write a research paper on an assigned topic (shown below). Your instructor has given you access to a database of news articles from 1996 to 2000 to be used for the assignment. You are in a group with three other people (Luis, Martin, and Betty). Your team agreed that everyone would do some searches on the database to find articles that may be useful in writing your research paper. Your other team members may have already done some searches and the group has agreed to meet tomorrow to talk about what everyone found. Your task today is to find and rate articles that will help your group with the assignment.

Use the news article database to find articles that will help you write a research paper on the topic below. What measures have been taken worldwide and what countries have been effective in curbing population growth? While researching this topic, keep in mind that your paper will be stronger if you support your thesis with actual cases in which population measures have been taken and the results are known. For this assignment, reduction measures to control growth are defined as those that are being actively pursued. Passive events such as disease or famine that involuntarily reduce population should not be cited.
Klein, R., Schwank, I., Genereux, M., Trost, H., & Klein, A. (2001). Evaluating multi-modal input modes in a Wizard-of-Oz dtudy for the domain of Web search. People and Computer XV -- Interaction without Frontiers: Joint Proceedings of HCI 2001 and IHM 2001. London: Springer-Verlag, 475-483.
Klas, C., Fuhr, N., & Schaefer, A. (2004). Evaluating Strategic Support for Information Access in the DAFFODIL System. In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (pp. 476-487). Presented at the ECDL 2004, Berlin: Springer.
Task type: a free search
Task type definition: "choose an arbitrary task of current interest" (p. 481)
Task type: Known-item tasks
Task type definition: "The test person gets the assignment to find a known article based upon a complete title." (p. 482)
Tasks:
1 "Task 1: The test person gets the assignment to find a known article based upon a complete title. Since the title1 is precise, Google will find it directly.
Task 2: The test person gets again the assignment to find a known article based upon a complete title. But this time the title2 is not precise, we have incomplete knowledge, so complexity level is two." (p. 482)
Task type: All articles task
Task type definition: "The task is to find all articles of Norbert Fuhr in the area of digital libraries of the last four years" (p. 482)
Tasks:
1 "The task is to find all articles of Norbert Fuhr in the area of digital libraries of the last four years" (p. 482)
Task type: Author task
Task type definition: "The test person searches for the main research area of an author" (p. 482)
Tasks:
1
Task type: New Area search
Task type definition: "The most complex task (level four) is to let the test person find literature about a specific subject." (p. 482)
J.R. Rinewalt. (1977). Feature evalution of a full-text information-retrieval system. Online Information Review, 1(1), 43 - 52.
Dalrymple, P. W. & Zweizig, D. L. (1992). Users' Experience of Information Retrieval Systems: An Exploration of the Relationship between Search Experience and Affective Measures. Library & Information Science Research, 14(2), 167-181.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Davis, C. H. & Shaw, D. (1989). Comparison of Retrieval System Interfaces Using an Objective Measure of Screen Design Effectiveness. Library and Information Science Research, 11(4), 325-334.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Allen B. (1998). Designing information systems for user abilities and tasks: An experimental study. Online and CD-ROM review, 22(3), 139-153.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. A few minutes ago you read an article on a topic. Now, assume that you are working a term paper assignment for one of your classes, which requires you to complete a 10-page paper on this topic. TO do this, you want to find additional information about the topic. You will be searching an experimental information retrieval system to find a few good articles about the topic that you can include in your term paper.
2. A few minutes ago you read an article on a topic. Now assume that you have been asked to write an article in the student newspaper on this topic. TO do this, you want to find additional information about the topic. You will be searching an experimental information retrieval system to find as many articles as you an about the topic so that you can write a well-informed article.
Yuan, X. & Liu, J. (2013). Relationship between cognitive styles and users' task performance in two information systems. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50, article No. 40.
Task type: aspectual search tasks
Task type definition: "The aspectual tasks were to identify as many different aspects as possible for a given topic and save appropriate resources that cover all distinct aspects of that topic (Over, 1997)." (p. 4)
Tasks:
1 Scenario: As a graduate student, you want to write a paper about research on life on Mars. You are interested in how research has been done and what research has played an important role in this area during the past several years.
Task: You want to identify all the countries which have many publications (>20) and also have collaborated with each other. Please put your answer on the answer sheet.
Task type: Analytical search tasks
Task type definition: "The analytical search tasks were defined as tasks which need more goal-oriented and systematic analytical strategies (Marchionini, 1995)." (p. 4)
Tasks:
1 Scenario: As a graduate student, you want to write a paper about research on life on Mars. You are interested in how research has been done and what research has played an important role in this area during the past several years.
Task: You need to collect some papers for the literature review. You know that some papers published by Edwards HGM would be very helpful. Please find the author who has the most collaboration with Edwards HGM, then put your answer on the answer sheet.
Hu, R., Lu, K., & Joo, S. (2013). Effects of Topic Familiarity and Search Skills on Query Reformulation Behavior. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-9.
Task type: informational search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 (1) You are a 60-year-old menopausal woman without hormone replacement therapy. You want to know if there are adverse effects on lipids when progesterone is given with estrogen replacement therapy.
(2) You are a patient with cerebral palsy and depression. You want to know about the relationship between cerebral palsy and depression.
(3) You have diabetic gastroparesis. You want to know what the best treatment is for diabetic gastroparesis.
(4) You are a patient with a migraine. You want to know about the treatment of migraine headaches with beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
(5) You are a 50-year-old person with COPD. You want to know how theophylline should be used for chronic and acute asthma.
(6) You are a 60-year-old man with severe malabsorption. You want to know about the processes of infiltrative small bowel and information about small bowel lymphoma and heavy alpha chain disease.
Broussard, R. & Zhang, Y. (2013). Seeking treatment options: Consumers' search behaviors and cognitive activities. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50, 1-10.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The first task asked the participant to find out about side effects of Creatine; the second asked about what to do when a person has a heart attack; the third asked about the association between two conditions: diabetes and hypertension; and the fourth asked the participant to find out about treatment options for migraines." (p. 3)

Imagine that you recently began suffering from migraines. You heard about two possible treatments for migraine headaches, beta-blockers and/or calcium channel blockers, and you decided to do some research about them. At the same time, you want to explore whether there are other options for treating migraines without taking medicines, such as diet and exercise.
Athukorala, K., Hoggan, E., Lehtio, A., Ruotsalo, T., & Jacucci, G. (2013). Information-Seeking Behaviors of Computer Scientists: Challenges for Electronic Literature Search Tools. Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 50, Article No. 20.
Ruotsalo, T., Athukorala, K., Głowacka, D., Konyushkova, K., Oulasvirta, A., Kaipiainen, S., Kaski, S., & Jacucci, G. (2013). Supporting Exploratory Search Tasks with Interactive User Modeling. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50(1), 1-10.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: "Exploratory search is a non-static information retrieval setting in which information needs are not discretely anticipated, but rather emerge as the users iteratively seek, learn, and reflect on complex information." (p. 2)
Tasks:
1 1. Cognitive control (Psychology): Which human functions (cognitive abilities) are related to this topic? Mention at least three. List at least three brain areas, two neurotransmitters and two mental disorders that have been shown to relate to cognitive control. Select 10 articles you find useful.

2. Reinforcement learning (Machine learning): Which research areas make use of Reinforcement Learning? Mention at least five. Select 10 articles that you find useful.

3. Semantic search (Information retrieval): Which kind of techniques and methods are used to acquire and utilize semantics in a search process? Mention at least five. Find research areas related to Semantic Search. Select 10 articles that you find useful..

4. Communication protocols (Computer networking): Find research areas related to communication protocols. Mention at least five. List the protocols you have found. Mention at least 10. Select 10 articles that you find useful.

5. Fair use (Trademark law): Which users are protected under Fair use? Find the economic uses for and against fair use. Select 10 articles that you find useful.
Liu, J., Liu, C., & Belkin, N. (2013). Examining the effects of task topic familiarity on searchers' behaviors in different task types. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 50, Article No. 38.
Task type: Background Information Collection (BIC)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Background Information Collection (BIC): Your assignment: You are a journalist at the New York Times, working with several others on a story about whether and how changes in US visa laws after 9/11 have reduced enrollment of international students at universities in the US. You are supposed to gather background information on the topic, specifically, to find what has already been written on this topic. Your Task: Please find and save all the stories and related materials that have already been published in the last two years in the New York Times on this topic, and also in five other important newspapers, either US or foreign.
Task type: Interview Preparation (INT)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Interview Preparation (INT): Your assignment: Your assignment editor asks you to write a news story about whether state budget cuts in New Jersey in US are affecting financial aid for college and university students. Your Task: Please find the names of two people with appropriate expertise that you are going to interview for this story and save just the pages or sources that describe their expertise and how to contact them.
Task type: Advance Obituary (OBI)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Advance Obituary (OBI): Your assignment: Many newspapers commonly write obituaries of important people years in advance, before they die, and in this assignment, you are asked to write an advance obituary for a famous person. Your Task: Please collect and save all the information you will need to write an advance obituary of the artist Trevor Malcolm Weeks.
Task type: Copy Editing (CPE)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Copy Editing (CPE): Your assignment: You are a copy editor at a newspaper and you have only 20 minutes to check the accuracy of the three underlined statements in the excerpt of a piece of news story below. New South Korean President Lee Myung-bak takes office Lee Myung-bak is the 10th man to serve as South Koreas president and the first to come from a business background. He won a landslide victory in last Decembers election. He pledged to make economy his top priority during the campaign. Lee promised to achieve 7% annual economic growth, double the countrys per capita income to US$4,000 over a decade and lift the country to one of the topic seven economies in the world. Lee, 66, also called for a stronger alliance with top ally Washington and implored North Korea to forgo its nuclear ambitions and open up to the outside world, promising a better future for the impoverished nation. Lee said he would launch massive investment and aid projects in the North to increase its per capital income to US$3,000 within a decade once North Korea abandons its nuclear program and chooses the path to openness. Your Task: Please find and save an authoritative page that either confirms or disconfirms each statement.
Ruthven, I., Lalmas, M., & van Rijsbergen, K. (2002). Ranking expansion terms using partial and ostensive evidence. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science. CoLIS 4, 21-25 July 2002, Seattle, Washington, 1-21.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Several valuable paintings and other works of art in a local Glasgow museum have been discovered to be fakes. The museums spokesman claims that art crime in particular fraud is becoming more common. He also claims that it is difficult to distinguish deliberate crime from genuine mistakes made by people selling works of art. You wonder if he is correct or whether these are excuses. You think more information on art crime, and on genuine cases of art fraud, can help you decide if the spokesman is correct.

At a recent party you overhear a discussion about whether science funding gives value for money. One person claimed that many expensive projects, such as the Hubble Telescope, do not produce significant positive advances. You are not sure how true this statement is, and would like to find more information on the positive achievements of the Hubble Telescope since it was launched in 1991.

The new Scottish Parliament is considering planning permission for a series of large hydroelectric projects. These projects will use water power to produce electricity for a large area of Scotland. Supporters of the projects claim that they will give cheaper electricity and reduce global-warming, opponents argue that the projects may cause environmental damage and harm tourism. The Parliament has decided to hold a vote for all Scottish residents to decide if these projects should go ahead. You have little independent information upon which to base your decision, and would like information on similar projects.

It is likely that a British General Election will be held in May this year. In the last General Election, one of the main issues was the relatively low number of female members of parliament. This prompted one party to introduce special measures to increase the number of female candidates in the election. Other politicians argue that poor representation of women in parliament is not a specific feature of British politics. As the poor representation is likely to be a major issue in the forthcoming election, you would like to be more informed about the representation of women in politics.

You and a friend are trying to choose a holiday for later this summer. One possible holiday destination will mean taking several ferry trips but you have heard rumours that ferries in this area have a poor safety record. You need to book your holiday soon but need more information on the dangers of ferry travel.

Your best friend is an active member of a major wildlife preservation group. She is working on a project to build an electronic database of wildlife species that are in danger of extinction and the steps that different countries have taken to protect these species. She has asked you for help in providing information on international attempts to save native species, and the causes of wildlife extinction.
Zhang, X., Cole, M., & Belkin, N. (2011). Predicting users' domain knowledge from search behaviors. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 1225-1226.
Task type: recall-oriented search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Liu, J. & Belkin, N. J. (2011). Search task difficulty: the expected vs. the reflected. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 1183-1184.
Task type: general task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Each participant was asked to write a 3 - section article on hybrid cars, each section be ing finished in one session based on one sub - task of his/her choice." (p. 1183)
Task type: parallel task (PT)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Half of the participants worked on a parallel task (PT), which asked them to prepare an article comparing the Honda Civic, Nissan Altima and Toyota Camry hybrid cars." (p. 1183)
Task type: dependent task (DT)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The other half worked on a dependent task (DT), which asked them to a) explore which car manufactures produce hybrid cars, b) identify 3 mid - priced hybrid cars, and c) compare the three cars pros and cons." (p. 1183)
Karimi, S., Scholer, F., Clark, A., & Kharazmi, S. (2011). Domain expert topic familiarity and search behavior. In roceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 1135-1136.
Du, J. T. (2011). Cognitive coordinating behaviors in multitasking web search. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 1117-1118.
Spink, A., Danby, S., Mallan, K., & Butler, C. (2010). Exploring young children's web searching and technoliteracy. Journal of Documentation, 66(2), 191 - 206.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Some children were (...) using the Google web search engine to find information to help them create their posters." (p. 195)
A. MacFarlane, A. Al-Wabil, C.R. Marshall, A. Albrair, S.A. Jones, & P. Zaphiris. (2010). The effect of dyslexia on information retrieval: A pilot study. Journal of Documentation, 66(3), 307 - 326.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Find documents that discuss the damage ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun can do to eyes

Find accounts of selfless heroic acts by individuals or small groups for the benefit of others or a cause
Shah, C. & Gonzalez-Ibanez, R. (2011). Evaluating the synergic effect of collaboration in information seeking. Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 913-922.
Task type: recall-oriented exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 A leading newspaper has hired your team to create a comprehensive report on the causes, effects, and consequences of the recent gulf oil spill. As a part of your contract, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find.
To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Make sure you also rate a snippet to help you in ranking them based on their quality and usefulness. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report, no longer than 200 lines, as instructed.
Your report on this topic should address the following issues: description of how the oil spill took place, reactions by BP as well as various government and other agencies, impact on economy and life (people and animals) in the gulf, attempts to fix the leaking well and to clean the waters, long-term implications and lessons learned.
Haas, K., Mika, P., Tarjan, P., & Blanco, R. (2011). Enhanced results for web search. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 725-734.
Lagun, D. & Agichtein, E. (2011). ViewSer: enabling large-scale remote user studies of web search examination and interaction. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 365-374.
Task type: search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Find information on buying, installing, and repairing toilets.
Find information about Mitchell College in New London, CT, such as a prospective student might fi nd useful.
I'm looking for cheap (i.e. low-cost) internet service.
I'm looking for various sports scores and information from the ESPN Sports site.
Find information on the Greek mathematician Euclid.
Moraveji, N., Russell, D., Bien, J., & Mease, D. (2011). Measuring improvement in user search performance resulting from optimal search tips. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 355-364.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1A. Imagine you live in Centreville, MD. What library within 15 miles of Centreville has the book The Person and the Situation and how far away is it (in miles)?
Search Tip: You can search for books in a local library with Google and see if that book is in a local library by clicking the "Find in a library" link.

1B. Imagine you live in Grand Junction, CO. What is the closest library that carries the book Arenas of Language Use and how far is it (in miles)?
Search Tip: (same as 1A)

2A. There are many Microsoft Word files freely available on the web about having good standing posture. Find four (4) different ones and paste the URLs to the 4 files.
Search Tip: You can have Google return only some kinds of files, like Powerpoint and PDF. Use Advanced Search like below or add filetype:doc or whatever file type into the search box.

2B. There are many Microsoft Word files freely available on the web about how to correctly cut a dogs nails. Find four (4) different ones and paste the URLs to the 4 files (any dog breed).
Search Tip: (same as 2A)

3A. Which month of 2010 has had the most tweets about Demi Moore so far?
Search Tip: Press More then 'Updates' on the left side of Google search results to see how many Tweets there are that match your keywords.

3B. Which day in July 2010 were there most tweets about George Clooney?
Search Tip: (same as 3A)

4A. Paste the URL of a video about Surat Thani, Thailand that is over 21 minutes long.
Search Tip: You can search videos on Google and it will automatically include results from YouTube, Vimeo, and other video sites. You can then sort the list of videos by duration, quality, etc.

4B. Paste the URL of a video about Nagaland, India (or people from Nagaland) that is over 50 minutes long.
Search Tip: (same as 4A)

5A. What is the song that contains the lyric who are you gonna bring the bad things to?
Search Tip: Putting quotes around your query will search for the exact words in the order you type them.

5B. Find a web page that has the speech that contains the phrase go in search of the true justice?
Search Tip: (same as 5A)

6A. Paste 3 URLs that include the full names of people who have the name Lebron OTHER than Lebron James.
Search Tip: Use the minus sign (-) to tell Google to REMOVE any results that contain that word.

6B. Paste 3 URLs that include the full names of people who have the name Mariah OTHER than Mariah Carey.
Search Tip: (same as 6A)
Ageev, M., Guo, Q., Lagun, D., & Agichtein, E. (2011). Find it if you can: a game for modeling different types of web search success using interaction data. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 345-354.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 How many Swedes speak English as a percentage?
When the jominy test was invented?
Which metals float on water?
What is oxygen partial pressure at 5000 feet?
How many Argentine soldiers died in falklands islands war?
What ingredients in cough medicine make you hallucinate?
How do you say welcome in kashmiri?
Am I allowed to carry a parachute onboard as a hand luggage?
What animal is smaller than a bear but it eats a plant called bearberry?
What is the highest peak in western hemisphere?
Elsweiler, D., Harvey, M., & Hacker, M. (2011). Understanding re-finding behavior in naturalistic email interaction logs. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 35-44.
Elsweiler, D., Losada, D. E., Toucedo, J. C., & Fernandez, R. T. (2011). Seeding simulated queries with user-study data for personal search evaluation. In Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information Retrieval, 25-34.
Task type: Lookup tasks
Task type definition: "Lookup tasks involved finding specific pieces of information, such as passwords or phone numbers from an email." (p. 27)
Task type: Item tasks
Task type definition: "Item tasks involved finding complete emails perhaps to print out or forward to someone else." (p. 27)
Task type: Multi-item tasks
Task type definition: "multi-item tasks involved re-finding multiple email messages and sometimes process- ing to content of those mails to complete the task." (p. 27)
Mu, X., Lu, K., & Ryu, H. (2010). Search strategies on a new health information retrieval system. Online Information Review, 34(3), 440 - 456.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 (1) You are a 60-year-old menopausal woman without hormone replacement therapy. You want to know if there are adverse effects on lipids when progesterone is given with estrogen replacement therapy.
(2) You are a patient with cerebral palsy and depression. You want to know about the relationship between cerebral palsy and depression.
(3) You have diabetic gastroparesis. You want to know what the best treatment is for diabetic gastroparesis.
(4) You are a patient with a migraine. You want to know about the treatment of migraine headaches with beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
(5) You are a 50-year-old person with COPD. You want to know how theophylline should be used for chronic and acute asthma.
(6) You are a 60-year-old man with severe malabsorption. You want to know about the processes of infiltrative small bowel and information about small bowel lymphoma and heavy alpha chain disease.
Pu, H. (2010). User evaluation of textual results clustering for web search. Online Information Review, 34(6), 855 - 874.
Task type: closed information search
Task type definition: "the task focuses on finding a specific piece of information (closed)" (p. 861)
Task type: exploratory (open) search
Task type definition: "it is more exploratory in nature (open)." (p. 861)
Hariri, N. (2011). Relevance ranking on Google: Are top ranked results really considered more relevant by the users? Online Information Review, 35(4), 598 - 610.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Lopes, T. C. & Ribeiro, C. (2011). Comparative evaluation of web search engines in health information retrieval. Online Information Review, 35(6), 869 - 892.
Task type: work task
Task type definition: not defined
Balatsoukas, P. & Ruthven, I. (2012). An eye-tracking approach to the analysis of relevance judgments on the Web: The case of Google search engine. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 63(11), 1728-1746.
Task type: a fixed fact-finding task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 What is the date of birth and birthplace of Edgar Allan Poe?
Smith, G., Brien, C. & Ashman, H. (2012). Evaluating implicit judgments from image search clickthrough data. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 63(12), 2451-2462.
Task type: navigational searcg
Task type definition: "Where the searcher knows something about what they are searching for, the query intent is navigational, that is, the searcher's purpose is to locate resources about a known topic." (p. 2456)
Task type: informational search
Task type definition: "Where the topic is unknown to the searcher, the query intent is informational and the searcher uses the query results to form an understanding of the topic." (p. 2456)
Burt, M. & Liew, C. L. (2012). Searching with clustering: An investigation into the effects on users' search experience and satisfaction. Online Information Review, 36(2), 278 - 298.
Task type: keyword searching
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "A search was performed for salsa: this word was chosen due to the possibility of multiple meanings (dance, sauce, music)." (p. 285)
"Participants were then asked to perform a short search on any topic of interest to them." (p. 285)
"Following this, participants were asked to spend 20 minutes searching for a job and for accommodation in a city of their choice."(p. 285)
Bar-Ilan, J., Zhitomirsky-Geffet, M., Miller, Y., & Shoham, S. (2012). Tag-based retrieval of images through different interfaces: a user study. Online Information Review, 36(5), 739 - 757.
Task type: Image search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 S1. The forefathers: The place of the forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in Jewish and world art
S2. Jewish symbols: The appearance of Jewish symbols around the world. The emphasis in this project is on the geographic aspect
S3. Prayer: The prayer has a central place in the life of religious Jews. Your project should deal with different aspects of the prayer: places where it takes place, prayer texts, etc,
S4. Jewish/Israeli figures: Characters and figures that make up the Jewish/Israeli existence in recent generations. The figures can be either unknown or famous
S5. Historical events
Major events in the history of the Jewish people. The time span includes biblical times, through the Middle Ages, the establishment of the State of Israel and recent times
S6. Jewish holiday food: Traditional food for Jewish holidays
S7. Head coverings: In the Jewish religion, head coverings symbolise respect for God and modesty
S8. Jewish settlements: Jewish settlements before and after the establishment of the State of Israel
S9. Jewish life cycle: Major ceremonies in Jewish life: Brith Mila, Bar and Bat Mitzva and marriage
S10. Haggadah: The Passover Haggadah is one of the better known Jewish texts. Illustrate your project with Haggadahs that were printed before the establishment of the State of Israel
Chen, J. A. (2012). An Individual's Problem Space and Web Information Searching: A Proposed Study on Mental Organization of Keyword Importance and Efficiency in Everyday Web Information Searching. In Proceedings of 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 4583 - 4592.
Task type: Web information search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Task background statement: Members of the Austronesian race live in a vast area, roughly half the globe, extending from Madagascar in the west to Hawaii and Easter Island in the east, and from New Zealand in the south to Taiwan in the north. Austronesians are one of the indigenous or aboriginal people in the area which consists of many countries. The populations in these countries are diversified now. Some linguistic scholars suggest that Taiwan is the original homeland of all Austronesians, because the internal diversity among the Taiwanese native peoples' languages is greater than that of all the rest of Austronesia put together.

Searching task: Assume you are assigned to do homework by a professor. The homework question is: How did Taiwan's native (aboriginal) people communicate in writing from roughly 200 to 400 years ago?
Kim, J. & Can, A. (2012). Characterizing Queries in Different Search Tasks. In Proceedings of 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 1697 - 1706.
Task type: directed-closed search
Task type definition: "I want to get an answer to a question that has a single, unambiguous answer." (p. 1699)
Tasks:
1 You plan to visit San Francisco next week. One of your friends who has been there suggests that you visit the oldest seafood restaurant in town. You want to know the name of the restaurant.
Task type: directed - open search
Task type definition: "I want to get an answer to an open - ended question, or one with unconstrained depth." (p. 1699)
Tasks:
1 Your cousin, a typical teenage girl, said that one of her friends had started to smoke. You fear your cousin might begin smoking in the near future and decide to educate her, so you have to find some information on what could happen if she starts smoking.
Task type: undirected search
Task type definition: "I want to learn anything/every thing about my topic." (p. 1699)
Tasks:
1 You have recently moved to Boston and you are interested in buying a home. You have heard that most homes built before 1978 have some lead paint, but that their paint status is often repor ted as unknown. You think you should learn about lead paint and housing. The web seems like a good place to locate this information.
Zhang, X. & Li, Y. (2012). Effects of "Advanced Search" on User Performance and Search Efforts: A Case Study with Three Digital Libraries. In Proceedings of 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 1605 - 1614.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The search task was a typical topic search task: it required the participants to conduct a search on each of the three systems for relevant information about protecting the on-line repository from fraudulent activity by watermarking." (p. 1607)
Phillips, A.H., Yang, R., & Djamasbi, S. (2013). Do ads matter? An exploration of web search behavior, visual hierarchy, and search engine results pages. In Proceedings of 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 1563 - 1568.
Task type: Web search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "In task 1, participants were asked to use the key words free screen recording software to find free screen recording software that they would use for their coursework. In task 2, participants were asked to use the key words best snack in Boston to find a snack place in Boston that they would like to visit with their friends." (p. 1565)
Balatsoukas, P. & Ruthven, I. (2010). What eyes can tell about the use of relevance criteria during predictive relevance judgment? In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 389-394.
Task type: Web search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Participants information needs ranged from topics of personal interest (such as planning a trip to the Highlands) to academic- related topics (such as fi nding information about iPhone programming codes)." (p. 389)
Yuan, X., Zhang, X., & Trofimovsky, A. (2010). Testing visualization on the use of information systems. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 365-370.
Task type: browsing tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Scenario: As a graduate student, you want to write a paper about research on life on Mars. You are interested in how research has been done and what research has played an important role in this area during the past several years.

Task: You want to identify all the countries which have many publications (>20) and also have collaborated with each other. Please put your answer on the answer sheet.
Task type: searching tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Scenario: As a graduate student, you want to write a paper about research on life on Mars. You are interested in how research has been done and what research has played an important role in this area during the past several years.

Task: You need to collect some papers for the literature review. You know that some papers published by Edwards HGM would be very helpful. Please find the author who has the most collaboration with Edwards HGM, then put your answer on the answer sheet.
Kim, Y. (2010). Social tags in text and image search. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 353-358.
Task type: text search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Laptop: You want to buy a new laptop computer and need to decide what kind to get. To help you make this decision, you would like to know what other people recommend, as well as their own experiences using different models of laptop computers. Save the 3 pages you found most useful.
2 Chicago: You are interested in visiting Chicago for a weekend trip, and would like to find information about hotels, restaurants, and interesting things to do in the city. Save the 3 pages you found most useful.
Task type: Image search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Women: You are preparing flyers advertising events for Womens History Month. You want to find 5 photographs to use in the flyers, showing images of American women at work through the years. Save the 5 photographs you intend to use.
2 NYC: You are taking a class on the history of cities. For your next homework assignment, you have to present to the class historical images of New York City. You need to find 5 photographs for your presentation. Save the 5 photographs you intend to use.
Lykke, M., Ingwersen, P., Bogers, T., Lund, H., & Larsen, B. (2010). Physicists' information tasks: structure, length and retrieval performance. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 347-352.
Liu, J., Liu, C., Zhang, J., Bierig, R., & Cole, M. J. (2010). Identifying queries in the wild, wild web. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 317-322.
Task type: Web search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "1) background information collection (BIC): collect published stories in important newspapers on changes in US visa laws after 9/11 reducing enrollment of international students at universities in the US; 2) copy editing (CPE): find authoritative pages that confirm or disconfirm three facts in a part of an article; 3) interview preparation (INT): find the contact information of two people with appropriate expertise to be interviewed for a news story about the effect of state budget cuts in New Jersey on financial aid for college and university students; and 4) advanced obituary (OBI): collect information needed to write an advance obituary of an artist." (p. 318)
Ruthven, I., Clews, C., Dali, W. H. M. (2010). First impressions: how search engine results contextualise digital identities. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 311-316.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Each participant was asked to search on 6 collages; 3 positive and 3 negative." (p. 312)
Cool, C. & Xie, I. (2010). Affective utterances as contextual feedback in interactive information retrieval: examples from help-seeking interactions. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 277-282.
Wildemuth, B. M., Oh, J. S., & Marchionini, G. (2010). Tactics used when searching for digital video. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 255-264.
Task type: video search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Imagine that you are an emergency response officer in California and that you are developing an online tutorial on how to respond to an earthquake. You would like to illustrate the tutorial with video showing the damage that can be caused by an earthquake. (concrete; for production)

Imagine that you are a geography professor and are developing a presentation for your introductory class on the differing roles of rivers. Youd like to show clips from recent videos (since 1990) of several different rivers. (concrete; for viewing)

Imagine that you are a video enthusiast, having studied video production techniques since you were in your teens. You are interested in creating a montage of a selection of the really early films from the Open Video collection that are most popular with users of the site. (abstract; for production)

Imagine that you are a history professor, teaching a course on the history of technology in the U.S. You want to find some footage that illustrates Americas growing obsession with cars/automobiles between 1930 and 1950. (abstract; for viewing)
Bando, L. L., Scholer, F., & Turpin, A. (2010). Constructing query-biased summaries: a comparison of human and system generated snippets. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 195-204.
Task type: simulated work task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Simulated work task 1. Your friend has become a member of an animal protection group and will present a talk about endangered species and wildlife next week. Your friend has been consulting several sources and has asked to you to help summarise a document according to specific questions that could arise from the audience. Request A. One question that your friend needs to prepare for is: Why are pandas considered to be endangered? Identify their habitat and explain what threatens them. Request B. The document could be useful to prepare for the questions: What efforts have been made to prevent the demise of pandas? Which countries are making such efforts?

Simulated work task 2. As a member of a scientific group, you will undertake an expedition to Antarctica. You have been asked to research prior explorations and the role of krill in Antarctica. Request A. Your team leader is interested in the following information: Identify current or planned systematic explorations and scientific investigations of Antarctica. Request B. Your team leader is interested in the following information: What are krill? Why are they important to Antarctica?
Egusa, Y., Saito, H., Takaku, M., Terai, H., Miwa, M., & Kando, N. (2010). Using a concept map to evaluate exploratory search. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 175-184.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: "White and Roth [17] said that people engaged in exploratory searches are generally: (1) unfamiliar with the domain of their goal; (2) unsure about the ways to achieve their goals; and/or even (3) unsure about their goals." (p. 177)
Tasks:
1 A. Politics topic with Selective scenario
You are required to write a term paper on the influence of a change in administrations for a mass communication course at the universitys liberal arts school. This term pa- per task has the following constraints for learning the cita- tion method. Constraint 1: Write a complete rip-off term paper. Search and gather sentences on the Web, combine them, and complete a term paper without adding your own text. Constraint 2: Select carefully. You can cite up to 10 web pages. Bookmark the selected pages for your term papers citation. Constraint 3: You have only 15 minutes to gather information from the Web because you have to complete the term paper within the class time. Constraint 4: Your report will be evaluated highly if it contains a wide variety of viewpoints and is well organized. Procedure: When you open the Firefox browser, a blank page appears. The links to Google, Yahoo!, MSN, and goo are en- tered into the bookmarks list beforehand. However, you can use other search engines, and freely search the Internet as you usually would.

B. Media topic with As-Many-As scenario
You are required to write a term paper on the medias im- pact on the young adult populationfor a mass communica- tion course at a universitys liberal arts school. Media here means TV, games, and the Internet, etc. This task has the following constraints in learning the ci- tation method. Constraint 1: Same as Constraint 1 in Appendix A. Constraint 2: You can cite up to 10 web pages. Constraint 3: Same as Constraint 3 in Appendix A. Imagine you are going on a trip with your friend. However, the deadline of a term paper is next week. Therefore, you decide to look for materials to think about for the term paper during the trip. There is no environment to connect to the Internet at your destination. Thus, you want to gather as many informative materials as you can. You have only 15 minutes to search on the Web because your departure will be in two hours and you will have to download and print out the data. Find as much useful information as you can and bookmark the related pages during the 15-minute period. Procedure: Same procedure as given in Appendix A.
Rieh, S. Y., Yang, J. Y., Yakel, E., & Markey, K. (2010). Conceptualizing institutional repositories: using co-discovery to uncover mental models. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 165-174.
Task type: search task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Task 1: You are interested in how computer simulation is applied in transportation related studies. You talked with your instructor about the possibility of choosing this topic for your term paper. Your instructor suggested that you could start with the Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) collection. He also said that in order to write a good paper, you should try to find multiple articles using computer simulation in transportation related studies, such as predicting the braking performance or steering response.

Task 2: Your history professor told you that there are very good photos on polar exploration taken by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd. He said that the collection called Byrd Expedition Photo Albums contains a lot of good images that you could use for your presentation. Please try to locate this collection and find a few photos of expedition members, dogs, or any other interesting images that you want to use.

Task 3: You want to know more about energy efficiency. As your friend studies at University of California Energy Institute, you want to search their collection to find multiple articles on energy efficiency.

Task 4: You major in Electrical Engineering and you hear that there is a collection called MIT OpenCourseWare - Archived Content. You want to find some syllabus or readings for Electrical Engineering field there.

Task 5: You are planning a presentation on public education in Delaware. You know that Delaware Education Research and Development Center may have something helpful on your topic. You want to explore their collection to find multiple sources for your presentation.

Task 6: Your friend asked you to find some recent studies on art therapy. You think it might be a good idea to search Drexel Theses and Dissertations collection first. What can you find there for your friend?
Bar-Ilan, J., Zhitomirsky-Geffet, M., Miller, Y., & Shoham, S. (2010). Tag, cloud and ontology based retrieval of images. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 85-94
Task type: Image search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 The place of the forefathers - Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in Jewish and World art
The appearance of Jewish symbols around th e world. The emphasis in this project is on the geographic aspect
The prayer has a central place in life of religious Jews. Your project should deal with different aspects of the prayer: places where it takes place, prayer texts etc.
Characters and figures that make up the Jewish/Israeli existence in the recent generations. The figures can be both unknown or famous
Major events in the history of the Je wish people. The time span incl udes Biblical times, through the Middle Ages, the establishment of the State of Israel and recent times
Traditional food for Jewish holidays
In the Jewish religion, head coverings symbolize respect to God and modesty
Jewish settle ments before and after the estab lishment of the State of Israel
Major ceremonies in the Jewish life: Brith Mila, Bar and Bat Mitzva and marriage
The Passover Hagga dah is one of the better known Jewish texts. Illustrate your project with Haggadahs that were printed before the esta blishment of the State of Israel
Diriye, A., Blandford, A., & Tombros, A. (2010). When is system support effective?. In Proceedings of the third symposium on Information interaction in context, 55-64.
Task type: known-item search tasks
Task type definition: "searchers were required to iden- tify a known piece of information" (p. 57)
Tasks:
1 1. Identify three incidents of human smuggling.
2. Identify three positive achievements of the Hubble telescope since its launch in 1991.
Task type: exploratory search task
Task type definition: "the objective was to address a general topic" (p. 57)
Tasks:
1 1. You have to plan a ve-day vacation along the west coast of Italy. You want to nd out what are the must-see sightseeing spots along the Italian west coast, and learn about Italian wine and the best vineyards in Tuscany to visit on your trip.
2. You've been given an assignment in class on racial pro l- ing, and are expected to write a paper on it. You decide to begin by trying to understand what racial pro ling is, and explore and examine the issues, organisations and laws concerning it.
Chu, P., Jozsa, E., Komlodi, A., & Hercegfi, K. (2012). An exploratory study on search behavior in different languages. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 318-321.
Task type: own-item information-seeking
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Participants had to find the CEO of IBM." (p. 319)
Task type: subject driven medium-complexity tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "One of your friends spends his/her holiday in [destination varied based on the participant group as shown in Table 1] with his/her spouse and children ages six and eight...... He/she asks you to make some suggestions on what they should do on those two days......" (p. 319)
Jozsa, E., Koles, M., Komlodi, A., Hercegfi, K., & Chu, P. (2012). Evaluation of search quality differences and the impact of personality styles in native and foreign language searching tasks. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 310-313
Task type: known-item search
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: subject driven medium- complexity tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 One of your friends spends his/her holiday in Ocean City Maryland with his/her spouse and children ages six and eight. The weather forecast is predicting rain for two days. He/she asked you to make some suggestions on what they should do on those two days. Bookmark the pages that you think would be useful in answering the questions. Please bookmark several pages and suggest at least five different activities for the family with children ages six and eight.
Renaud, G. & Azzopardi, L. (2012). SCAMP: a tool for conducting interactive information retrieval experiments. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 286-289.
Purvis, J. & Azzopardi, Leif. (2012). A preliminary study using PageFetch to examine the searching ability of children and adults. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 262-265.
Saastamoinen, M., Kumpulainen, S., & Jarvelin, K. (2012). Task complexity and information searching in administrative tasks revisited. Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 204-213.
Clark, M., Ruthven, I., O'Brian Holt, P., & Song, D. (2012). Looking for genre: the use of structural features during search tasks with Wikipedia. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 145-154
Task type: simulated work/situation task
Task type definition: "that were related to typical tasks to reflect similar participants needs and were therefore representative of some of the most commonly submitted queries." (p. 147)
Tasks:
1 1. You are joining a debating society and need some notes to make a PowerPoint presentation on the first topic, which is: Cannabis: Good or Ba d? Since being made illegal in the UK in 1928 and since the introduction of the 1971 Dangerous Drugs Act, the use of cannabis for medicinal reasons has been restricted. However, in recent years, some countries (for example, Austria) have legalized the smo king/ingesting of cannabis by certain patients for pain relief and other medicinal benefits. Thus medical cannabis has bec ome a topic of hot debate. You want to understand the arguments for and against the use of marijuana for medical purposes. Therefore , you decide to do some preliminary research on this subject using Wikipedia. What are the possible health benefits and heal th problems that may entail from smoking/ingesting cannabis for medical reasons?

2. You have been tasked to write an essay on the Arab Spring which started to be reported in late 2010. The beginning of the so - called Arab Spring led to a huge wave of demonstrations and uprisings in at least 17 countries that has resulted in many long - standing military regimes being overthrown and, in some cases, in civil war. Use Wikipedia to find out some useful information that you feel is appropriate and can be used later to form a basis for the essay. For example, the countries involved and so on.

3. You are in the third year of a social studies degree and have been given coursework on the topic of Philanthropy. On the 4 th August 2010, thirty - eight US billionaire philanthropists pledged at least 50% of their wealth to charity through a campaign started by the investor, Warren Buffet, and the Microsoft founder, Bill Gates. Some of those who have signed the pledge include Michael Bloomberg and George Lucas. Many mentioned in The Giving Pledge project are among the most influential people in the contemporary United States and debatably the world. Your co ursework states that you have to carry out an investigation to find out who you think is the most influential philanthropist in the pledge group.

4. You are working for ITN n ews as an intern. There has been a major air crash at an international airport. The n ews editor wants you to search for background information on the previous top two worst air disasters in history, such as the numbers of fatalities, casualties and so on. She also wants to know the names of airlines with the best and worst safety records.

5. You are on work experience at the sports desk at The Guardian newspaper and have been asked by the editor to collect information on the two rival teams, Boca Juniors and River Plate, as they face each other in the Argentine Cup Final. Use Wikipedia to find out appropriate information about each club, such as the stadiums, star players and the managers of each team.

6. You are in the third year of a political studies degree course and have been given coursework on studying the legislature in an African country . You decide to focus on Namibia. Collect information about the Parliament, National Council of Namibia, National Assembly and any other information you think is relevant to form the basis of your work.
Eickhoff, C., Dekker, P., & de Vries, A. P. (2012). Supporting children's web search in school environments. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 129-137.
Task type: Factual questions
Task type definition: "Factual questions can be answered with a single sentence. Tasks like this can typically be answered with a single query." (p. 132)
Tasks:
1 What do whales eat?
How many brothers and sisters does Queen Beatrix have?
Task type: Open-ended questions
Task type definition: "Open-ended questions express exploratory information needs that aim towards acquiring broad knowl- edge about a given topic" (p. 132)
Tasks:
1 What can you find out about the first car ever built? Write down some facts about it.
Task type: Multi-step questions
Task type definition: "Multi-step questions require advanced reasoning to combine information acquired over multiple queries in a session" (p. 132)
Tasks:
1 Which day of the week is the birthday of the Dutch prime minister in 2011?
Hughes-Morgan, K. & Wilson, M. L. (2012). Information vs interaction: examining different interaction models over consistent metadata. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 72-81.
Task type: a simple lookup task
Task type definition: "The simple lookup tasks had a fixed answer, but the chosen task description was presented in such a way that the most likely query would not find the answer without subsequent queries or refinements." (p. 76)
Tasks:
1 What is the population of Ohio?
Find the first state of America
What is the iPad 3s proposed processor name?
Task type: an exploratory task
Task type definition: "The exploratory search tasks were chosen to be tasks with multiple sub-problems, such that searchers would have to perform a series of searches or refinements to combine answers from several websites. The tasks, therefore, resembled a collection-style task, without there being specific dependencies between the sub-elements." (p. 76)
Tasks:
1 Find an appropriate review of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. - Compare the rating with the previous film.
Deduce the main problems that Steve Jobs incurred with regards to his health
Explore information related to Apples next iPhone, the iPhone 5. - Note the expected release date. There could well be multiple rumours.
Oksanen, S. & Vakkari, P. (2012). In search of a good novel, neither reading activity nor querying matter, but examining search results does. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium, 12-20.
Task type: fiction searching
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 You are in a library in a situation when you do not have a clear idea of what you would like to read. Plea se use the PIKI catalog to search for a novel of interest to you, which you would like to read. Do not search for a particular author or novel, although you may use this as a point of departure for your search
Wang, X., Erdelez, S., Lu, Y., Allen, C., Anderson, B., Cao, H. & Shyu, C. R. (2011). Search tactics for medical image retrieval. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-4.
Task type: Image search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Find an x-ray image that demonstrates the typical gas pattern seen in small bowel obstruction.
Yuan, X. (2011). A comparative experiment of the effect of visualization on user performance of information systems. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-2.
Task type: aspectual search tasks
Task type definition: "Aspectual tasks required the subject to identify as many different aspects as possible for a given topic and save appropriate resources that cover all distinct aspects of that topic."
Tasks:
1 List all the keywords that appear frequently with the word life
Task type: Analytical search tasks
Task type definition: "Analytical search tasks were defined as tasks that need more goal-oriented and systematic analytical strategies."
Dostert, M. (2011). Does domain knowledge influence search stopping behavior?. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-2.
Liu, C., Liu, J., Belkin, N., Cole, M. & Gwizdka, J. (2011). Using dwell time as an implicit measure of usefulness in different task types. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-4.
Task type: scenario search task
Task type definition:
Gonzalez-Ibanez, R., Shah, C. & Cordova-Rubio, N. (2011). Smile! Studying expressivity of happiness as a synergic factor in collaborative information seeking. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-10.
Task type: recall-oriented exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 A leading newspaper has hired your team to create a comprehensive report on the causes, effects, and consequences of the recent gulf oil spill. As a part of your contract, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find.
To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Make sure you also rate a snippet to help you in ranking them based on their quality and usefulness. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report, no longer than 200 lines, as instructed.
Your report on this topic should address the following issues: description of how the oil spill took place, reactions by BP as well as various government and other agencies, impact on economy and life (people and animals) in the gulf, attempts to fix the leaking well and to clean the waters, long-term implications and lessons learned.
Saito, H., Egusa, Y., Terai, H., Kando, N., Nakashima, R., Takaku, M. & Miwa, M. (2011). Changes in users' knowledge structures before and after Web search on a topic: Analysis using the concept map. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-4.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "There are two scenarios, divergent and convergent. In the divergent scenario, the participants were required to gather Web pages for a series of articles in a regular feature; in the convergent scenario they were required to gather pages for only a single article of the regular feature. We prepared tasks for each scenario of the two topics." (p. 2)
Du, J. T. (2011). Study of multitasking, cognitive coordination and cognitive shifts in Web search: Preliminary findings. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48: 1-6.
Task type: Multitasking Web search
Task type definition: "Multiple information problems consisted of original information problems (OIP) which initiated study participants' Web search and evolving information problems (EIP) which were generated during the searching process." (p. 3.)
Tasks:
1 OIP1. Looking for the 10 schools, private or state, in radius 30 minutes drive from my house (Eight Mile Plains). OIP2. Looking for carava n parks around Melbourne and those are in the way to Melbourne: name and price. OIP3. Looking for the cheapest accommodation and flight to New Zealand on the mid of January, for 2 weeks.

EIP1. Looking for the surrounding suburbs around my home in Google Ma ps. EIP2. Information on the distance between a parking place and Melbourne. EIP3. Looking for the cheapest flight from Brisbane to Auckland. EIP4. Looking for the cheapest accommodation in Auckland CBD. EIP5. Information on the area in Auckland.
O'Brien, H. L. (2011). Exploring user engagement in online news interactions. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-10.
Task type: online news task, a simulated task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 You will be attending a social gathering this evening. It is a birthday party for a friend being held at a local restaurant. You do not know many of the guests in attendance. You thought it might facilitate meeting new people and taking part in conversations if you were up-to-date on some recent news. You decide to browse the CBC news website to see if there are any interesting items. You only have about 20 minutes before you have to start getting ready for the party. You decide that looking at one article might not give enough variety of information since you do not know the interests and backgrounds of the other guests. In the end, you determine that three articles would give you enough things to bring up in conversation.
Task type: Simluated task scenario
Task type definition: Not defined; based on Borlund's specifications
Liu, G. Z. & Chong, S. S. (2011). Metacognition & conceptual drifting in interactive information retrieval: An exploratory field study. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48, 1-9.
Arguello, J., Wu, W., Kelly, D., & Edwards, A. (2012). Task complexity, vertical display and user interaction in aggregated search. In Proceedings of the 35th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 435-444.
Task type: Remember
Task type definition: "Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory" (p.439)
Tasks:
1 How many people in the U.S. are currently living with HIV?
2 What is the name of the deepest point in the ocean?
Task type: Understand
Task type definition: "Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining" (p.439)
Tasks:
1 What are some long-term health risks faced by professional football players?
2 What are some human activities that can degrade soil fertility?
Task type: Analyze
Task type definition: "Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing" (p.439)
Tasks:
1 What are some of the different types of artificial tanning methods? What health risks are associated with them?
2 You recently heard that a lot of trash ends up in the ocean. In which oceans or areas does most trash end-up and why?
Wu, W., Kelly, D., & Huang, K. (2012). User evaluation of query quality. In Proceedings of the 35th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 215-224.
Task type: fact-finding information problems
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Bob is interested in researching the history of motorcycles. To start his research, he decides to find out when each major motorcycle company was founded. Specifically, he wants to determine the year in which Harley Davidson motorcycles was founded.

Janet is planning a boat convention for her company which will be held next year in Las Vegas and need s to select a hotel. She has heard positive things about the Bellagio hotel, but first wants to find out how many guest rooms are available.
Task type: exploratory information problems
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Carol is planning to fly to Amsterdam next month and would like to learn more about the body scanners that are being used in many airports as part of routine security procedures. Specifically, she is interested in gathering a range of information and opinions about these scanners and any privacy or health issues related to their u se.
Liu, C., Belkin, N. J., & Cole, M. J. (2012). Personalization of search results using interaction behaviors in search sessions. In Proceedings of the 35th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 205-214.
Task type: Web search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Background Information Collection (BIC) Your assignment: You are a journalist for the New York Times, working with several others on a story about whether and how changes in US visa laws after 9/11 have reduced enrollment of international students at universities in the US. You are supposed to gather background information on the topic, specifically, to find what has already been written on this topic. Your task: Please find and save all the stories and related materials that have already been published in the last two years in the Times on this topic, and also in five other important newspapers.

Interview Preparation (INT) Your assignment: Your assignment editor asks you to write a news story about whether state budget cuts in New Jersey are affecting financial aid for college and university students. Your Task: Please find the names of two people with appropriate expertise that you are going to interview for this story and save just the pages or sources that describe their expertise and how to contact them.

Copy Editing (CPE) Your assignment: You are a copy editor at a newspaper and you have only 20 minutes to check the accuracy of the three underlined statements in the excerpt of a piece of news story below. Topic: New South Korean President Lee Myung-bak takes office Body: Lee Myung-bak is the 10th man to serve as South Koreas president and the first to come from a business background. He won a landslide victory in last Decembers election. He pledged to make the economy his top priority during the campaign. Lee promised to achieve 7% annual economic growth, double the countrys per capita income to US$4,000 over a decade and lift the country to one of the topic seven economies in the world. Lee, 66, also called for a stronger alliance with top ally Washington and implored North Korea to forgo its nuclear ambitions and open up to the outside world, promising a better future for the impoverished nation. Lee said he would launch massive investment and aid projects in the North to increase its per capita income to US$3,000 within a decade once North Korea abandons its nuclear program and chooses the path to openness. Your Task: Please find and save an authoritative page that either confirms or disconfirms each statement.

Advance Obituary (OBI) Your assignment: Many newspapers commonly write obituaries of important people years in advance, before they die, and in this assignment, you are asked to write an advance obituary for a famous person. Your task: Please collect and save all the information you will need to write an advance obituary of the artist Trevor Malcolm Weeks.
Liu, Y, & Belkin, N. J. (2008). Query reformulation, search performance, and term suggestion devices in question-answering tasks. In Proceedings of the second international symposium on Information interaction in context, 21-26.
Task type: aspectual (or instance) retrieval task
Task type definition: "searchers are to identify documents which specify the different aspects or instances of a search topic." (p. 22)
Benoit, G. & Agarwal, N. (2012). All-visual retrieval: How people search and respond to an affect-driven visual information retrieval system. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Task type: fact-finding task
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: information gathering tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Gonzalez-Ibanez, R. & Shah, C. (2012). Investigating positive and negative affects in collaborative information seeking: A pilot study report. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Task type: A multiple-step fact-finding search
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: non-dividable search
Task type definition: not defined
Smith, C. L. (2012). Exploring and describing search expertise. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Huang, C., Joo, S. & Xie, I. (2012). Effects of learning styles on the application of search tactics: A preliminary result. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Task type: known-item search
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: specific information search
Task type definition: not defined
Task type: aspectual recall-oriented search
Task type definition: not defined
Na, K. & Park, M. S. (2012). Searcher's perceptions for query reformulation behavior on the web. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Gong, X., Ke, W. & Khare, R. (2012). Studying scatter/gather browsing for web search. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Task type: Known-item tasks
Task type definition: "known item searches are specific and easy to formulate queries" (p. 1)
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: "exploratory searches often involve topics that are broad (less specific) and hard to define." (p. 2)
Jayroe, T. J. & Wolfram, D. (2012). Internet searching, tablet technology and older adults. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-3.
Task type: basic information search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The search tasks involved finding the weather for a given location, seeking information on glaucoma on WebMD.com, searching for an image of a frog on a boat in 1965, and finding and downloading a book by Mark Twain through Project Gutenberg. Subjects were also asked to conduct one task on each device they normally complete in their day-to-day interaction with the Internet." (p. 2)
Saparova, D. (2012). Information needs and search characteristics of first-year medical students. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49, 1-4.
Task type: known-item search
Task type definition: "Known-item search tasks required the searcher to obtain a piece of information that was known to exist and provide a specific answer to the question." (p. 2)
Task type: subject search
Task type definition: "Subject search tasks required the searcher to find different pieces of information that were related to the subject and considered useful in answering the question." (p. 2)
Yue, Z., Han, S. & He, D. (2012). An investigation of search processes in collaborative exploratory web search. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49(1), 1-4.
Task type: collaborative exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 One task is related to academic work, which asks participants to collect information for a report on the effect of social networking service and software (Shah, 2010). The other task, which is about leisure activities, asks participants to collect information for planning a trip to Helsinki (Paul, 2010).
Capra, R., Chen, A. T., Hawthorne, K., Arguello, J., Shaw, L. & Marchionini, G. (2012). Design and evaluation of a system to support collaborative search. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49(1), 1-10.
Task type: collaborative exploratory search
Task type definition: "people work together to conduct searches and collect documents related to a shared information need." (p. 1)
Tasks:
1 For this task, imagine that you are taking an Environmental Studies class here at UNC. As part of the class, your instructor has given you a research assignment to do in small groups. The goal of the assignment is to find articles that will help you write a research paper on an assigned topic (shown below). Your instructor has given you access to a database of news articles from 1996 to 2000 to be used for the assignment. You are in a group with three other people (Luis, Martin, and Betty). Your team agreed that everyone would do some searches on the database to find articles that may be useful in writing your research paper. Your other team members may have already done some searches and the group has agreed to meet tomorrow to talk about what everyone found. Your task today is to find and rate articles that will help your group with the assignment.
Liu, C., Liu, J., Cole, M., Belkin, N. J. & Zhang, X. (2012). Task difficulty and domain knowledge effects on information search behaviors. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49(1): 1-10.
Task type: search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are gathering information for a class project on the following topic: 45 Mental Health Wellness-1 Need: What genetic loci, such as Mental Health Wellness 1 (MWH1) are implicated in mental health? Context: Want to identify genes involved in mental disorders. Please try to find and save all the articles on this topic. You will have up to 15 minutes to search on this task.
Shah, C., Liu, J., Gonzalez-Ibanez, R., & Belkin, N. (2012). Exploration of dynamic query suggestions and dynamic search results for their effects on search behaviors. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49(1): 1-10.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 As a history buff, you have heard of the quiet revolution, the peaceful revolution, and the velvet revolution. For a skill-testing question to win an iPod you have been asked how they differ from the April 19th revolution. Search and visit any websites that help you find information on this topic. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Make sure you also rate a snippet to help you in ranking them based on their quality and usefulness. You have 25 minutes to read this task description, and collect information (snippets) from any online sources, and using any search engines you wish.
Liu, J. & Belkin, N. J. (2012). Searching vs. writing: Factors affecting information use task performance. In Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49(1): 1-10.
Task type: work task
Task type definition: "work tasks at hand that involves information use and require certain types of outcomes other than finding information" (p. 1)
Tasks:
1 In the dependent task, the three sub-tasks were: 1) collect information on what manufacturers have hybrid cars; 2) select three models that you will mainly focus on in this feature story; and 3) compare the pros and cons of three models of hybrid cars. In the parallel task, the three sub-tasks were finding information and writing a report on three models of cars from auto manufacturers renown for good warranties and fair maintenance costs: 1) Honda Civic hybrid; 2) Nissan Altima hybrid, and 3) Toyota Camry hybrid.
Gonzalez-Ibanez, R., Haseki, M. & Shah, C. (2012). Time and space in collaborative information seeking: The clash of effectiveness and uniqueness. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49(1): 1-10.
Task type: collaborative exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 A leading newspaper has hired your team to create a comprehensive report on the causes, effects, and consequences of the recent gulf oil spill. As a part of your contract, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find. To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want, and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Make sure you also rate a snippet to help you in ranking them based on their quality and usefulness. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report, no longer than 200 lines, as instructed. Your report on this topic should address the following issues: description of how the oil spill took place, reactions by BP as well as various government and other agencies, impact on economy and life (people and animals) in the gulf, attempts to fix the leaking well and to clean the waters, long-term implications and lessons learned.
Hoeber, O. (2013). A longitudinal study of HotMap web search. Online Information Review, 37(2): 252-267.
O'brien, H. L. & Toms, E. G. (2013). Examining the generalizability of the User Engagement Scale (UES) in exploratory search. Journal Information Processing and Management, 49(5): 1092-1107.
Task type: Exploratory search, decision search
Task type definition: "make a decision between two options based on a set of criteria." (p. 1097)
Tasks:
1 Type A. Your friend has decided that he wants to get a dog. Hes never owned a dog before and he is trying to decide between two dog breeds, Siberian Husky and German Shepherd. Using the information you find in Wikipedia, would you recommend that your friend get a Siberian Husky or a German Shepherd? Provide at least three reasons for your decision. Type B. Your friend has decided that he wants to get a dog. Hes never owned a dog before and he is trying to decide between two dog breeds, Siberian Husky and German Shepherd. Using the information you find in Wikipedia, you offer to answer three of your friends questions: ⁄Which dog breed is easier to train? ⁄Which dog breed is more prone to health problems? ⁄Which dog has the longer lifespan? Based on this information, would you recommend your friend select a Siberian Husky or a German Shepherd?
Cole, M. J., Gwizdka, J., Liu, C., Belkin, N. J., & Zhang, X. Inferring user knowledge level from eye movement patterns. Information Processing & Management, 49(5): 1075-1091.
Task type: simulated work task
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Category I: Genetic processes. 7 DNA repair and oxidative stress. Need: Find correlation between DNA repair pathways and oxidative stress. Context: Researcher is interested in how oxidative stress affects DNA repair. Category II. Genetic phenomena. 45 Mental Health Wellness-1. Need: What genetic loci, such as Mental Health Wellness 1 (MWH1) are implicated in mental health? Context: Want to identify genes involved in mental disorders. 42 Genes altered by chromosome translocations. Need: What genes show altered behavior due to chromosomal rearrangements? Context: Information is required on the disruption of functions from genomic DNA rearrangements. Category III: Genetic structure. 49 Glyphosate tolerance gene sequence. Need: Find reports and glyphosate tolerance gene sequences in the literature. Context: A DNA sequence isolated in the laboratory is often sequenced only partially, until enough sequence is generated to identify the gene. In these situations, the rest of the sequence is inferred from matching clones in the public domain. When there is difficulty in the laboratory manipulating the DNA segment using sequence-dependent methods, the laboratory isolate must be re-examined. 2 Generating transgenic mice. Need: Find protocols for generating transgenic mice. Context: Determine protocols to generate transgenic mice having a single copy of the gene of interest at a specific location.
Mu, X., Lu, K., & Ryu, H. (2014). Explicitly integrating MeSH thesaurus help into health information retrieval systems: An empirical user study. Information Processing & Management, 50(1): 24-40
Task type: definition search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. What is COPD? 2. What is cerebral palsy? 3. What is diabetic gastroparesis? 4. What are beta blockers? 5. What is estrogen replacement therapy? 6. What is heavy alpha chain disease?
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. You are a 50 year old person with COPD. You want to know how theophylline should be used for chronic and acute asthma 2. You are a patient with cerebral palsy and depression. You want to know about the relationship between cerebral palsy and depression. 3. You have diabetic gastroparesis. You want to know what the best treatment is for diabetic gastroparesis. 4. You are a patient with a migraine. You want to know about the treatment of migraine headaches with beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. 5. You are a 60 year old menopausal woman without hormone replacement therapy. You want to know if there are adverse effects on lipids when progesterone is given with estrogen replacement therapy. 6. You are a 60 year old man with severe malabsorption. You want to know about the processes of infiltrative small bowel and information about small bowel lymphoma and heavy alpha chain disease.
Wu, I. C. (2011). Toward supporting information-seeking and retrieval activities based on evolving topic-needs. Journal of Documentation, 67(3): 525-561.
Task type: knowledge-intensive tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The tasks included system development, thesis writing, and project surveys" (p. 544)
Taylor, A. (2013). Examination of work task and criteria choices for the relevance judgment process. Journal of Documentation, 69(4):523-544.
Lagun, D., Sud, A., White, R. W., Bailey, P., & Buscher, G. (2013). Explicit feedback in local search tasks. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 1065-1068.
Task type: pre-defined exploratory search
Task type definition: undefined
Tasks:
1 City-level Task: You are temporarily living in Boston, Massachusetts (MA) and would like to learn or improve French as a foreign language. Find at least 4 Web sites that offer French courses in Boston (no online courses). Initial Query = [French courses]. User Location=Boston, MA. State-Level Task: You are on a road trip in Virginia State (VA) with some wine loving friends. Find 4 vineyards in Virginia and note down 2 wines from each vineyard. Initial Query = [vineyard], User Location=VA
He, J., Bron, M., & de Vries, A. P. (2013). Characterizing stages of a multi-session complex search task through direct and indirect query modifications. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 897-900.
Task type: class research project
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 During a four week project, students investigated the historical context of the emancipatory role of female television or film personalities. The students concluded the project by writ- ing a photo essay incorporating primary and secondary sources to place the photos in context. The design of the project assignment can be divided into 3 stages: (i) in the first week students were asked to familiarize themselves with the topic and to pick a number of television or film personalities; (ii) in the second week students collected material, i.e., images and documents that motivated their choice for these images; and (iii) in the third and fourth week stu- dents organized the material and prepared a final presentation. (p. 898)
Qvarfordt, P., Golovchinsky, G., Dunnigan, T., & Agapie, E. (2013). Looking ahead: query preview in exploratory search. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 243-252.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition:
Guo, Q., Jin, H., Lagun, D., Yuan, S., & Agichtein, E. (2013). Mining touch interaction data on mobile devices to predict web search result relevance. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 153-162.
Task type: Web search tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1 What was the best selling book (title and author) of 2011 in the US? How many copies of the book were sold in 2011 in the US? 2 Find three vegetarian restaurants near the Lenox Square. 3 What is the average temperature for the Dallas,SD for winter? Summer?" 4 How many pixels must be dead on a iPad 3 before Apple will replace it? Assume the tablet is still under warranty. 5 In what year did the USA experience its worst drought? What was the average precipitation in the country that year? 6 Is the band State Radio coming to Atlanta,GA within the next year? If not, when and where will they be playing closest? 7 Find the working hours of the Target store nearest to Emory University.
Jiang, J., Jeng, W., & He, D. (2013). How do users respond to voice input errors?: lexical and phonetic query reformulation in voice search. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 143-152.
Moshfeghi, Y. & Jose, J. M. (2013). An effective implicit relevance feedback technique using affective, physiological and behavioural features. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 133-142.
Task type: Simulated search
Task type definition: "The structural framework of simulated need situations were used to present search tasks." (p. 136)
Tasks:
1 INS Task: "Imagine you have graduated recently and are going to interview for a job in a local company. As part of the interview process, you are asked to explain and expand on the area you will be working on. You feel very enthusiastic about the interview; however, due to your lack of knowledge you would like to nd out more about this particular topic before taking part in the interview." INF Task: Imagine you are discussing a video which you have seen few days ago with your friends. They are interested in seeing the video and have asked you to send them a link to it. You can remember the content of the video but you cannot remember its title or any textual information which can help you in retrieving it." ENA Task: Imagine you are working in a factory as a night-guard. You have just nished your routine checks and will be taking out more checks shortly. You are tired so you decide to watch some videos to wake yourself up and make yourself ready for your next round of checks." ENM Task: Imagine your boyfriend/girlfriend is travelling and communication access is very limited. It is now a few days since he/she has gone and you are missing him/her very much. You are feeling very sad and in order to change your mood, you have decided to watch some videos."
Bron, M., Gorp, J., Nack, F., Baltussen, L. B., & Rijke, M. (2013). Aggregated search interface preferences in multi-session search tasks. In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 123-132.
Task type: multi- session search task
Task type definition: "A multi-session search task, such as writing a report, consists of multiple information seeking tasks, each of which might be composed of its own sub-tasks." (p. 123)
Tasks:
1 (i) imagine that you work at the editorial office of a current affairs program and are asked to collect information about [celebrity]. Collect at least 5 items deemed to be relevant for this collection, (ii) search for events that were key in the career of [celebrity]. Collect at least 5 items for this collection, for example articles and photographs, about these events, (iii) key in the career of [celebrity] was [event].
Task type: class researh project (naturalistic)
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 reconstruct the historical context of the 1950s (start of television) or 1920s (start of film) in order to explain the emancipatory role of a famous female televi- sion/film personality. Write a photo essay in which you incorporate primary and secondary sources that place the photos in context. The research project is split into four assignments, one due each week: (i) familiarize yourself with the television/film personality of your choice and compose a list of five additional television/film personalities that fit your theme; (ii) start collecting images cen- tered around your theme and collect material that motivates choos- ing these images; (iii) select ten images and add keyword de- scriptions to create a coherent story; (iv) prepare a presentation explaining the theme of your project, using the collected material.
Azzopardi, L., Kelly, D. & Brennan, K. (2013). How query cost affects search behavior In Proceedings of the 36th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 23-32.
Task type:
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "Subjects were instructed to imagine they were newspaper reporters and needed to gather documents to write stories about the provided topics. Subjects were told that there were over 100 relevant documents in the collection for each topic and they should try to nd as many of these as possi- ble during the allotted time (10 minutes per topic)." (p. 28)
Emmanuel, J. (2011). Usability of the VuFind Next-Generation Online Catalog. Information Technology and Libraries, 30(1): 44-52.
Task type: library-catalog tasks
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The tasks ranged from a keyword search for global warming to a more complicated search for a specific compact disc by the artist Prince." (p. 46)
Zhang, T. (2013). User-Centered Evaluation of a Discovery Layer System with Google Scholar. In Marcus A. (Ed). Design, User Experience, and Usability. Web, Mobile, and Product Design. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg: 313-322.
Task type: keyword searching
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 "The keywords given to the participants for the first three searches were: classroom assessment techniques, food addition, and natural language processing." (p. 316)
Comeauxa, D. J. (2012). Usability Testing of a Web-Scale Discovery System at an Academic Library. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 19(2-4): 189-206.
Task type: library-catalog searching
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 1. a) Does the library have the book Appetite for America? Where exactly is it located? b) Can you e-mail the citation to yourself?
2 You are looking for books about Senate hearings on mortgages. How many books does the library have?
3 You need the book Night the War Was Lost. If the book is checked out, how do you get it?
4 a) You need to find articles from a peer- reviewed journal about fluid dynamics and plasma. It needs to be published in 2009 or later. b) Add 3 articles to your e-shelf.
5 Youre looking for an article called Transorbital Penetrating Head Injury by a Toilet Brush Handle. Does the library have access to it? If not, is there are way to get it?
Bechera, M. & Schmidta, K. (2011). Taking Discovery Systems for a Test Drive. Journal of Web Librarianship, 5(3): 199-219.
Task type: library-catalog searching
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Choose one of five research questions. Using the two search tools provided find a few good resources that would help you answer your selected question: What effect has economic globalization had on Asian cities? Describe the relationship between brain plasticity and Alzheimer's disease. What is Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem about? What were some of the major causes of the 1990's technology boom? Explain the major themes found in post-colonial literature of the late 20th century.
Liu, J., Belkin, N. J., Zhang, X., & Yuan, X. (2013). Examining users' knowledge change in the task completion process. Journal Information Processing and Management, 49(5): 1058-1074.
Task type: Multi-session tasks
Task type definition: "there are many tasks that cannot be accomplished in one session but require multiple sessions for various reasons, such as the complexity of the task, the difficulty in locating desired information, time constraints, and so on." (p. 1058)
Tasks:
1 In the dependent task (DT), the three sub-tasks were: (1) collecting information on what manufacturers have hybrid cars; (2) selecting three models that you will mainly focus on in this feature story; and (3) comparing the pros and cons of three models of hybrid cars. In the parallel task (PT), the three sub-tasks were finding information and writing a report on three models of cars from the automobile manufacturers renown for good warranties and fair maintenance costs: (1) Honda Civic hybrid; (2) Nissan Altima hybrid, and (3) Toyota Camry hybrid.
Yeh, S-T. & Liu, Y. (2011). Integrated Faceted Browser and Direct Search to Enhance Information Retrieval in Text-Based Digital Libraries. International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27(4): 364-382.
Task type: exploratory browsing
Task type definition: "In this research, the term browsing refers to exploratory browsing rather than examination of the results from information retrieval, and the term searching means direct searching with a single search box, not including advanced search functions that contain multiple search boxes." (p. 364)
Williamsa, S. C. & Fostera, A. K. (2011). Promise Fulfilled? An EBSCO Discovery Service Usability Study. Journal of Web Librarianship, 5(3): 179-198.
Task type:
Task type definition: not defined
Tasks:
1 Scenario 1: Click the Search It logo to begin a new search You are writing a short research paper about hybrid cars. Your professor requires you to have one book and one peer-reviewed journal article for your paper. Identify one of each and e-mail the citations to yourself. Scenario 2: Click the Search It logo to begin a new search You have to give a presentation on bullying in high school, and your sources must be published since 2005. Your presentation is tomorrow, so find an article that you can read online. Open the full text of the article on the screen. Scenario 3: Click the Search It logo to begin a new search You need to read the I Sing the Body Electric poem by Walt Whitman, published in Leaves of Grass, for your English class. Is there a copy available in Milner Library? Scenario 4: Click the Search It logo to begin a new search You are a member of a group working on a presentation about the effect social networking (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) has had on relationships of teenagers. Identify an appropriate article from a peer-reviewed journal and decide how to share it with your group members. Scenario 5: Click the Search It logo to begin a new search You are researching a project about the economic factors that affect businesses in Indonesia. Your professor said that useful information could be found in the ABI/Inform database. Perform a search on this topic and identify a relevant citation from ABI/Inform. Retrieve the full record from ABI/Inform.
Taylor, N. J., Dennis, A. R. & Cummings, J. W. (2013). Situation normality and the shape of search: The effects of time delays and information presentation on search behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(5): 909-928.
Task type: consumer task/business task
Task type definition: The task resembled both a consumer task involving relatively infrequent, high-value decisions (e.g., major purchases or vacation planning) as well as a business task where a number of websites/online databases need to be consulted in order to select the best alternative from a group of similar choices.
Tasks:
1 "Participants were asked to select the best digital camera from a set of 20 cameras for use by a department that had a defined set of selection criteria." (p. 915)
Shah, C. (2013). Effects of awareness on coordination in collaborative information seeking. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(6): 1122-1143.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 A leading newspaper has hired your team to create a comprehensive report on the causes and consequences of the current economic recession in the United States. As a part of your contract, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find. To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report. You may also want to save the relevant websites as bookmarks, but remember your main objective here is to collect as many relevant snippets as possible. Your report on this topic should address the following issues: reasons behind this recession; effects on some major areas, such as health-care, home ownership, and financial sector (stock market); unemployment statistics over a period of time; proposal, execution, and effects of the economy stimulation plan; and people's opinions and reactions on economy's downfall.
Task type:
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 The College Network News Channel wants to do a documentary on the effects of social networking services and software. Your team is responsible for collecting various relevant information (including statistics) from the web. As a part of your assignment, you are required to collect all the relevant information from any available online sources that you can find. To prepare this report, search and visit any website that you want and look for specific aspects as given in the guideline below. As you find useful information, highlight and save relevant snippets. Later, you can use these snippets to compile your report. You may also want to save the relevant websites as bookmarks, but remember your main objective here is to collect as many relevant snippets as possible. Your report on this topic should address the following issues: emergence and spread of social networking sites, such as MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and del.icio.us; statistics about popularity of such sites (How many users? How much time they spend? How much content?); impacts on students and professionals; commerce around these sites (How do they make money? How do users use them to make money?); and examples of usage of such services in various domains, such as health-care and politics.
Choi, Y. (2013). Analysis of image search queries on the web: Query modification patterns and semantic attributes. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(7): 1423-1441.
Task type: Image search
Task type definition: The participants engaged in finding images on the web as part of their normal activities.
O'Brien, H. L. & Lebow, M. (2013) Mixed-methods approach to measuring user experience in online news interactions. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(8): 1543-1556.
Task type: News reading task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You will be attending a social gathering this evening. It is a birthday party for a friend being held at a local restaurant. You do not know many of the guests in attendance. You thought it might facilitate meeting new people and taking part in conversations if you were up-to-date on some recent news. You decide to browse the CBC news website to see if there are any interesting items. You only have about 20 minutes before you have to start getting ready for the party. You decide that looking at one article might not give enough variety of information since you do not know the interests and backgrounds of the other guests. In the end, you determine that three articles would give you enough things to bring up in conversation.
Yuan, X., & Belkin, N.J. (2007). Supporting multiple information-seeking strategies in a single system framework. Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 247-254.
Task type: Scanning, then searching
Task type definition: "A person is very interested in one particular topic. S/he wants to find some good documents on this topic from a system which is composed of several databases. But s/he has no idea about which of the many possible databases to search." (p.248)
Tasks:
1 Topic: As a graduate student, you are asked to write an essay about high blood pressure for one of your courses. You are supposed to get information you need from a system that is composed of several databases. Each database has lots of news articles on a variety of topics, but you have no idea which databases are good on this topic. You believe it would be interesting to discover methods that reduce high blood pressure, and would like to collect news articles that identify different methods. Task: Please find as many different methods as possible. For each method, please copy the title or link of the article which discusses that method, and paste it to the answer box. For each article that you copy, please type or copy the method(s) that it identifies. If an article discusses more than one method, you only need to copy and paste the article once. If there are several articles which discuss the same methods, you only need to copy and paste one such article.
Task type: Searching, then scanning
Task type definition: "A person is in the process of preparing a talk for a conference. S/he recalls some germane comments from a known electronic book but cannot remember the exact contents. S/he needs to find out the exact quotations. S/he recalls that a certain electronic book might be very helpful. But she cannot exactly remember the name of the book." (p.249)
Tasks:
1 Topic: You are in the process of preparing a talk on the history of Rome. There are a lot of books available on this topic. But what you are interested in are the wars of Julius Caesar. You recall that some comments from an electronic book might be very useful for the talk. You cannot remember the exact name of the book. But you believe that it was published by a publisher in New York. The comments are about the strategies that Caesar used on the battle field to win the Battle of Pharsalia. You cannot remember the exact comments, but would like to quote them in your talk. Task: Please find the relevant comments from the book, copy the one best paragraph then paste it into the answer box. Also, please copy the title of the book then paste it to the answer box.
White, R.W., Bilenko, M., & Cucerzan, S. (2007). Studying the use of popular destinations to enhance Web search interaction. Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 159-166.
Task type: Known-item tasks
Task type definition: "The known-item search tasks required search for particular items of information (e.g., activities, discoveries, names) for which the target was well-defined." (p.162)
Tasks:
1 Identify three tropical storms (hurricanes and typhoons) that have caused property damage and/or loss of life.
Task type: Exploratory tasks
Task type definition: "Exploratory tasks were phrased as simulated work task situations [5], i.e., short search scenarios that were designed to reflect real-life information needs. These tasks generally required subjects to gather background information on a topic or gather sufficient information to make an informed decision." (p.162)
Tasks:
1 You are considering purchasing a Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone. You want to learn more about VoIP technology and providers that offer the service, and select the provider and telephone that best suits you.
White, R., Jose, J.M., & Ruthven, I. (2001). Query-biased web page summarisation: A task-oriented evaluation. Proceedings of the 24th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 412-413.
Task type: Search for a fact
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Summary: "fi nding a named person's current e-mail address" (p.413)
Task type: Search for a number of items
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Summary: "fi nding fi ve hotels in Paris, France that off er an online booking service" (p.413)
Task type: Decision search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Summary: "fi nding information about the 'best' impressionist art museum in Rome, Italy" (p.413)
Task type: Background search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Summary: " finding information about dust allergies in the workplace" (p.413)
Wacholder, N., Kelly, D., Kantor, P., Rittman, R., Sun, Y., Bai, B., Small, S., Yamrom, B., & Strzalkowski, T. (2008). A model for quantitative evaluation of an end-to-end question-answering system. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(8), 1082-1099.
Task type: Scenarios
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 The Department of Homeland Security has requested a complete report on the chemical weapon, sarin. This report is due in 5 hours. In your report, include a discussion of its potency and potential impact on a community, what countries and organizations have been involved in producing it, where these locations are, the production method and how it has developed, who possesses it now, who distributed it (if through trade, what was traded for it?), potential means of use, how it this be integrated into warheads, any known defenses against it, and who is at the greatest risk. Provide any other information that you see relevant.
2 As an employee of the Central Intelligence Agency, your profession entails knowledge of the al-Qaida terrorist group. Your division chief has ordered a detailed report on the al-Qaida Terrorist Group, due in three weeks. Provide as much information as possible on this militant organization. Eventually, this report should present information regarding the most essential concerns, including who are the key figures involved with al-Qaida along with other organizations, countries, and members that are affiliated, any trades that al-Qaida has made with organizations or countries, what facilities they possess, where they receive their financial support, what capabilities they have (chemical and biological weapons program, other weapons, etc.) and how have they acquired them, what is their possible future activity, how their training program operates, who their new members are. Also, include any other relevant information to your report as you see fit.
3 You have been given 30 days to develop a comprehensive report on the South African chemical, biological, and nuclear warfare program, for your division chief who is to present it to the Secretary of Defense. Your report should include several key elements of the South African WMD Program, including what people, organizations, and countries are involved, what chemicals have been purchased and/or used, where the chemicals have been purchased from and from whom, how their WMD program was financed, where these development locations are, any proposed activity (use, distribution, etc.), any money transactions that have been made between these suspects and other organizations, and any other contacts or travels that have been made by any of the primary figures involved. Supply any further information that can support your documentation.
4 The Department of Defense has demanded a report on how Russia has influenced the nuclear arms program in Iraq. The department needs the summary by close of business today. List the extent of the nuclear program in each country including funding, capabilities, quantity, etc. Your report should also include key figures in both the Russia and Iraq nuclear programs, any travels that these key figures have made to other countries in regards to a nuclear program, any weapons that have been used in the past by either country, any purchases or trades that have been made relevant to weapons of mass destruction (possibly oil trade, etc.), any ingredients and chemicals that have been used, any potential weapons that could be under development, other countries that are involved or have close ties to Russia or Iraq, possible locations of development sites, and possible companies or organizations that these countries work with for their nuclear arms program. Add any other information relating to the Russian and Iraqi Nuclear Arms Programs.
5 The Department of Defense has demanded a report concerning the North Korean Nuclear Arms Program. This report is needed within two days and should include any advances that have been made in their program, as well as their current stance on South Korea and the United States. Also include sources of weapons materials and technical assistance received. It should also contain information on any travels that have been made by North Korean government officials (where they travel to, who they visited, etc.), new relationships that North Korea has established, who these countries or organizations are, what capabilities they possess, and any other information that may apply.
Villa, R., Gildea, N., & Jose, J.M. (2008). FacetBrowser: A user interface for complex search tasks. Proceedings of the 16th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 489-498.
Task type: Situated work tasks
Task type definition: "A situated work task has two parts: a work task situation, and an indicative request. The work task situation describes a task scenario for the user, including the larger work context in which the search is taking place. The indicative request defines example requests for the task." (p.494)
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are a student working towards a media studies degree at the Open University, during the last few months of 2005. As part of your 2rd year politics and the media course, you have to produce a video program which presents a review of international politics at the end of 2005, as reported on the television news. You must now find material for this video presentation, to use in illustrating the important people, events, meetings, and situations which have occurred. Your task is to find, using the system, shots which reflect the important political events and people during the end of 2005. Material to find may include shots of politicians, speeches, interviews, panel discussions and in particular shots linking the different people and events together. For instance, searches may include famous leaders such as George Bush or Tony Blair, and include thematic situations in which they are involved together (for example, the in war in Iraq is of common relevance to both of the above leaders). Other international organisations such as the UN and EU, and shots illustrating events involving these organisations are also of significance to your video report. Choose as many shots from as many different videos as possible. If any individual video story is split across multiple shots, please mark all shots you feel are necessary in the video. Dont worry about the order of your marked shots you may assume that a separate video editing package is available which would allow you to edit your found shots into a summary, a task which will not be carried out in this experiment.
2 You work as a researcher for a television company, and as part of your remit, you work on a bi-monthly news program, which summarises and reviews major news stories. The latest episode of the program is to summarise the trial of Saddam Hussein, occurring during the final months of 2005. From the given database containing news from the final months of 2005, discover shots of the main news events which describe the story of the trial. This should, as far as possible, include all relevant material, including discussions and interviews about the trial reflecting contemporary views from all sides. For instance, aspects include the victims of his regime, his capture, allegations in court (e.g. torture) and shots of the other court players such as the judge. Choose as many shots from as many different videos as possible. If any individual video story is split across multiple shots, please mark all shots you feel are necessary in the video. Dont worry about the order of your marked shots you may assume that a separate video editing package is available which would allow you to edit your found shots into a summary, a task which will not be carried out in this experiment.
Tombros, A., Ruthven, I., & Jose, J.M. (2003). Searchers' criteria for assessing Web pages. Proceedings of the 26th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 385-386.
Task type: Background search
Task type definition: "searchers were asked to find as much general background information on the demographics of the Internet as possible" (p.385)
Task type: Decision task
Task type definition: "subjects were asked to decide on the best hi-fi speakers available in their own price range" (p.385)
Task type: Many items search
Task type definition: "the subjects [were asked] to compile a list of interesting things to do over a weekend stay in the city of Kyoto" (p.385)
Tombros, A., Larsen, B., & Malik, S. (2004). The interactive track at INEX 2004. In Fuhr, N., Lalmas, M., Malik, S., & Szlavik, Z. (eds.), Advances in XML Information Retrieval (Third International Workshop of the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval, INEX 2004, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, December 6-8, 2004, Revised Selected Papers). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3493, 410-423. Springer.
Task type: Background tasks
Task type definition: "find as much general information on a topic as possible" (p.411)
Tasks:
1 Cybersickness, topic 192
2 Ebooks, topic 180
Task type: Comparison tasks
Task type definition: "There are a number of topics whose subject is along the lines of: 'Find differences between X and Y'." (p.412)
Tasks:
1 Java-Python, topic 198
2 Fortran90-Fortran, topic 188
Szlavik, Z., Tombros, A., & Lalmas, M. (2007). Feature- and query-based table of contents generation for XML documents. In Amati, G., Carpineto, C., & Romano, G. (eds.), Advances in Information Retrieval (29th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2007, Rome, Italy, April 2-5, 2007. Proceedings). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4425, 456-467. Springer.
Task type: Simulated work task situations
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Let us suppose that you work as teaching assistant for operating systems. This inspired your interest in microkernel operating systems, and you are looking for documents that talk about operating systems with microkernel. Documents or document segments talking only about operating systems or microkernel are not of your interest. (A Microkernel is a highly modular collection of powerful OS-neutral abstractions, upon which can be built operating system servers.) The following documents contain possibly relevant information. Use the sliders to get the best table of contents and explore the document through clicking on the items in the left window.
Szlavik, Z., Tombros, A., & Lalmas, M. (2006). Investigating the use of summarisation for interactive XML retrieval. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 1068-1072.
Task type: Background tasks
Task type definition: "Background type tasks instructed searchers to look for information about a certain topic (e.g. concerns about the CIA and FBI's monitoring the public)" (p.1070)
Task type: List tasks
Task type definition: "List type tasks asked searchers to create a list of products that are connected to the topic of their tasks (e.g. a list of found speech recognition software)." (p.1070)
Suomela, S., & Kekalainen, J. (2005). Ontology as a search-tool: A study of real users' query formulation with and without conceptual support. In Losada, D.E., & Fernandez-Luna, J.M. (eds.), Advances in Information Retrieval (27th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2005, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, March 21-23, 2005. Proceedings). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3408, 315-329. Springer.
Task type: Simulated search tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Which cholesterol lowering edible fats exist on the market and how has their market situation developed worldwide?
2 How has the import controversy over transgenic food products between the United States and Europe progressed?
3 How has manufacture of ice cream been concentrated and reduced in Finnish milk processing companies?
4 How has the demand of organic products developed in Finland within the past few years? What is restraining the sale of organic products?
Skov, M. (2009). The Reinvented Museum: Exploring Information Seeking Behaviour in a Digital Museum Context. PhD thesis, Royal School of Library and Information Science, Denmark. pure.iva.dk/ws/files/30768221/MetteSkovThesis.pdf
Task type: Well-defined topical information need
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You went to the flea market last weekend and by coincidence you found an old powder horn. You bought the powder horn and was told, that it had been used in connection with hunting. However, one of your friends is certain it was used in the military. Now you are looking for different types of powder horns to try to decide on its use. (A photograph of the purchased powder horn was shown to the use study participant).
Task type: Data element search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 In your free time you do some research on the local history of your home town, Odense. In connection with the towns anniversary you plan to publish a small article on the towns industrial history. Therefore you are now doing some research on gun makers from your home town. You are interested in finding names of gun makers from Odense and maybe information on the weapons they produced.
Task type: Ill-defined topical information need
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are interested in Danish defence history relating to the Second World War. You visited the Military Museums exhibitions but you did not find as much information about the Second World War as you had expected. Therefore you are looking for additional information on their web site. You are interested in both objects, photographs, background information etc.
Task type: Combined known item and data element search
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You visited The Military Museum a couple of weeks ago because you are interested in American western history. You saw the exhibition on hand weapons, and you are pretty sure you found a Colt Navy revolver. Now you are interested in finding more information on this type of weapon and whether the Museum has more Colt revolvers.
Skov, M., & Ingwersen, P. (2008). Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Information Interaction in Context (IIiX), 110-115.
Task type: Ill-defined topic
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You went to the flea market last weekend and by coincidence you found an old powder horn. You bought the powder horn and was told, that it had been used in connection with hunting. However, one of your friends is certain it was used in the military. Now you are looking for different types of powder horns to try to decide on its use. (A photograph of the purchased powder horn is shown to the test person).
Task type: Data element
Task type definition: Not defined
Task type: Ill-defined topic (broad and semantically open)
Task type definition: Not defined
Task type: Known item + data element
Task type definition: Not defined
Price, S.L., Nielsen, M.L., Delcambre, L.M.L., & Vedsted, P. (2007). Semantic components enhance retrieval of domain-specific documents. Proceedings of the sixteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management, 429-438.
Task type: Scenarios
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Ex-smoker; cough, fatigue, shortness of breath: How should he be evaluated for emphysema?
2 Woman, 23 weeks pregnant, with vaginal bleeding: Should she be referred for immediate examination?
3 Childless woman who has had two miscarriages and wants to become pregnant: Should she take folate and at what dose?
4 Man who has been attacked with a knife, now nervous and afraid to leave his apartment alone: Can he be referred for free psychological help (covered by the public insurance)?
Pharo, N., & Nordlie, R. (2005). Context matters: An analysis of assessments of XML documents. In Crestani, F., & Ruthven, I. (eds.), Context: Nature, Impact and Role (5th International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Sciences, CoLIS 2005, Glasgow, UK, June 4-8, 2005. Proceedings). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3507, 238-248. Springer.
Task type: Background tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are writing a large article discussing virtual reality (VR) applications and you need to discuss their negative side effects. What you want to know is the symptoms associated with cybersickness, the amount of users who get them, and the VR situations where they occur. You are not interested in the use of VR in therapeutic treatments unless they discuss VR side effects.
2 You have tried to buy & download electronic books (ebooks) just to discover that problems arise when you use the ebooks on different PC's, or when you want to copy the ebooks to Personal Digital Assistants. The worst disturbance factor is that the content is not accessible after a few tries, because an invisible counter reaches a maximum number of attempts. As ebooks exist in various formats and with different copy protection schemes, you would like to find articles, or parts of articles, which discuss various proprietary and covert methods of protection. You would also be interested in articles, or parts of articles, with a special focus on various disturbance factors surrounding ebook copyrights.
Task type: Comparison tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You have been asked to make your Fortran compiler compatible with Fortran 90, and so you are interested in the features Fortran 90 added to the Fortran standard before it. You would like to know about compilers, especially compilers whose source code might be available. Discussion of people's experience with these features when they were new to them is also of interest.
2 You are working on a project to develop a next generation version of a software system. You are trying to decide on the benefits and problems of implementation in a number of programming languages, but particularly Java and Python. You would like a good comparison of these for application development. You would like to see comparisons of Python and Java for developing large applications. You want to see articles, or parts of articles, that discuss the positive and negative aspects of the languages. Things that discuss either language with respect to application development may be also partially useful to you. Ideally, you would be looking for items that are discussing both efficiency of development and efficiency of execution time for applications.
Pharo, N. (2008). The effect of granularity and order in XML element retrieval. Information Processing & Management, 44(5), 1732-1740.
Task type: Challenging tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 One of your friends has recently bought a small handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) unit, and the possibilities offered by this technology have caught your interest. You would like to explore new killer applications for mobile devices. Therefore, you are looking for examples and descriptions of applications that use GPS, for devices such as mobile phones, PDAs (Personal Desktop Assistants) and other wireless and mobile devices. Find, for instance, information that discusses examples of how applications that use GPS can be used to accomplish new tasks or provide new services.
2 In your daily work you sign on to a range of different systems both locally and remotely. On many of them you have different user IDs and different passwords, and you find it annoying to have to verify your identity again and again. In addition, you find it demanding to maintain all these IDs and passwords and to keep them secure. You have heard about LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) and other single sign-on procedures, and wish to learn more about them to assess the potentials for creating a single sign-on procedure for your local network (with both Unix, Linux, PC and Mac platforms). Find, for instance, information that discusses single sign-on procedures, or state of the art user-authentication methods.
3 Data security and authenticity is an important issue at your work place. One approach to ensure data authenticity is the so-called steganography where data is embedded in various media files like images, sound files, video files and so on. A commonly used data embedding technique is Watermarking where data can be effectively hidden in a file without the changes being visible to the common person. You want to learn more about Watermarking as a technique for data embedding that will enable you to verify the authenticity of a file. Find, for instance, information that discusses the use of watermarking techniques to hide information that will allow later validation of a files authenticity.
Task type: General tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 New anti-terrorism laws allow intelligence agencies like the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) to monitor computer communications to spot suspected criminals and terrorists. You would like to find information about how this affects your own and other peoples privacy and to know what concerns have been raised. Find, for instance, information that discusses the Carnivore or Echelon projects or other similar surveillance of computer communication.
2 Your department has produced a Linux-program and it is being discussed whether to release it under a public license such as GNU or GPL (General Public License). Therefore, you have been asked to find information about the implications of releasing the code under a public license as an open source program. Find, for instance, information that discusses different licensing schemes or articles about the impact of open source programs.
3 Video games are being played by an ever increasing number of people of all ages, and the game industry is becoming a major economic player. You would therefore like to find non-technical information about how video games have affected peoples lives as well as how the games have changed the entertainment industry. Find, for instance, information discussing the concerns that playing video games may lead to a rise in violent behaviour, or information about the effect of video games on the film industry.
Pansanato, L.T.E., & Fortes, R.P.M. (2007). System description: An orienteering strategy to browse semantically-enhanced educational wiki pages. In Franconi,E., Kifer, M., & May, W. (eds.), The Semantic Web: Research and Applications (4th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, June 3-7, 2007. Proceedings). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4519, 809-818. Springer.
Task type: Specific fact-finding
Task type definition: Not defined here; adopting definition from Shneiderman (1997)
Tasks:
1 Look for a particular exercise.
2 Look for the e-mail of a course monitor.
Task type: Extended fact-finding
Task type definition: Not defined here; adopting definition from Shneiderman (1997)
Tasks:
1 Look for evaluation criteria recently published by other professors.
Task type: Open-ended browsing
Task type definition: Not defined here; adopting definition from Shneiderman (1997)
Tasks:
1 Look for a new approach used to teaching a particular topic.
Task type: Exploration of availability
Task type definition: Not defined here; adopting definition from Shneiderman (1997)
Tasks:
1 Look for the learning material available to a particular course.
Petrelli, D., Demetriou, G., Herring, P., Beaulieu, M., & Sanderson, M. (2002). Exploring the effect of query translation when searching cross-language. In Peters, C., Braschler, M., Gonzalo, J., & Kluck, M. (eds.), Advances in Cross-Language Retrieval (Third Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2002, Rome, Italy, September 19-20, 2002, Revised Papers). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2785, 430-445. Springer.
Karlgren, J., & Hansen, P. (2002). SICS at iCLEF 2002: Cross-language relevance assessment and task context. In Peters, C., Braschler, M., Gonzalo, J., & Kluck, M. (eds.), Advances in Cross-Language Information Retrieval (Third Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2002, Rome, Italy, September 19-20, 2002, Revised Papers). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2785, 383-391. Springer.
Task type: Simulated Domain and Work-Task Scenario
Task type definition: "An evaluation methodology with simulated contexts that include description of domains and work-tasks. The method is an extension of the notion of simulated work-tasks... The goal of the method is to give the experimental query a context closer to a real-life information-seeking situation. In this way, the SDWS would allow the user a) a broader understanding of the situation, and b) a subjective interpretation of the relevance." (p.385)
Tasks:
1 Domain: Monitoring news and translation services; Work-task description: Among your daily work-tasks you monitor and translate news information within a specific areas based on profiles set up by external customers. Your customers are usually companies and public institutions. Topic: Genes and Diseases; Search task description: You have been assigned to monitor incoming news items that describe genes, which cause disease on humans. The customer especially wants documents that identify or report the discovery of a gene that is the source of any type of disease, syndrome,behavioural or developmental disorder in humans. Any information or document that reports the discovery of a defective gene that causes problems in humans is relevant. Documents that describe diseases and disorders caused by the absence of a gene are not relevant.
Singer, G., Norbisrath, U., & Lewandowski, D. (2012). Ordinary search engine users assessing difficulty, effort, and outcome for simple and complex search tasks. Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context (IIiX) Symposium, 110-119.
Task type: Simple tasks
Task type definition: "Simple tasks are characterized by asking the users to find simple facts. The needed information is contained in one document (web site) and can retrieved with one single query." (p.112)
Tasks:
1 When was the composer of the piece "The Magic Flute" born?
2 How hot can it be on average in July in Aachen/Germany?
3 How many opera pieces did Verdi compose?
4 When and by whom was penicillin discovered?
5 How many Euros do you get if you exchange 10.000 units of the currency of Lithuania?
6 Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911) was a well-known journalist and publisher from the U.S. The Pulitzer Prize carries on his name. In which European country was Pulitzer born?
Task type: Complex tasks
Task type definition: "Complex tasks... are formulated in a way that the users have enough context to comprehend the task situation but the tasks are still characterized by uncertainty and ambiguity. There is no single correct answer retrievable and the required information is spread over various documents (web sites). Fulfilling the task typically requires issuing multiple queries, aggregating information from various sources and synthesizing the information into a single solution document." (p.112)
Tasks:
1 How high is the state debt of Italy in comparison to their gross domestic product (GDP) in June 2011 in %?
2 What are the most important ve points to consider if you want to plan a budget wedding?
3 You were off ered the job to run a local Goethe Institute (responsible for German language and cultural education) abroad. The chance is high that you will be sent to Astana (Kazakhstan). Please collect facts and information (about half a page) about the political situation in Kazakhstan and the living quality.
4 What is the name of the creature on the following picture and who is the author? Hint: this Austrian writer is also well known in Germany. (Illustration omitted for copyright reasons)
5 Are there di fferences regarding the distribution of religious affiliations between Austria, Germany, and Switzerland? Which ones?
6 There are fi ve countries whose names are also carried by chemical elements. France has two (31. Ga - Gallium and 87. Fr - Francium), Germany has one (32. Ge - Germanium), Russia has one (44. Ru - Ruthenium) and Poland has one (84. Po - Polonium). Please name the fifth country.
Liu, J., Liu, C., Cole, M., Belkin, N.J., & Zhang, X. (2012). Exploring and predicting search task difficulty. Proceedings of the 21st ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, 1313-1322.
Task type: Difficult task
Task type definition: "The topics were selected based on their difficulty levels, which were determined by retrieval performance using the topic titles as queries in our search system." (p.1315)
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are gathering information for a class project on the following topic: 45 Mental Health Wellness-1 Need: What genetic loci, such as Mental Health Wellness 1 (MWH1) are implicated in mental health? Context: Want to identify genes involved in mental disorders. Please try to find and save all the articles on this topic. You will have up to 15 minutes to search on this task.
Task type: Easy task
Task type definition: "The topics were selected based on their difficulty levels, which were determined by retrieval performance using the topic titles as queries in our search system." (p.1315)
Carmel, D., Yom-Tov, E., Darlow, A., & Pelleg, D. (2006). What makes a query difficult? Proceedings of the 29th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 390-397.
Otterbacher, J., Radev, D., & Kareem, O. (2008). Hierarchical summarization for delivering information to mobile devices. Information Processing & Management, 44(2), 931-947.
Task type: Multiple choice questions
Task type definition: "Designed to measure a users reading comprehension of a set of articles that have been summarized, and in which users are asked to find the answers to key factual questions surrounding the articles" (p.939)
Tasks:
1 Who is Malaysian prime minister Mahathir's closest economic adviser?
2 How much wheat does Egypt import?
3 What is Kwinana?
4 Which stock index was down by 2.24 percent?
5 What was Doan Viet Hoat's occupation in 1976?
6 Who is Yashwant Sinha?
7 Where is Port Moresby?
8 Where is Irian Jaya?
9 What percentage of the vote in the Columbian presidential elections did the Liberal party win?
10 What is the name of a Japanese Car Producers' Organization?
Malik, S., Klas, C.-P., Fuhr, N., Larsen, B., & Tombros, A. (2006). Designing a user interface for interactive retrieval of structured documents -- Lessons learned from the INEX interactive track. Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries. Springer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4172, 291-302.
Task type: Content only topics
Task type definition: Not defined
Task type: Ad-hoc topics
Task type definition: Not defined
Larsen, B. (2002). Exploiting citation overlaps for information retrieval: Generating a boomerang effect from the network of scientific papers. Scientometrics, 54(2), 155-178.
Task type: Work task
Task type definition: Not defined; Borlund dissertation referenced
Tasks:
1 As a researcher your main research interest is osteoporosis (brittleness of the bones). An important question in your research is the problem of how to detect patients who have bone fractures, for which ultrasound measurements are commonly applied as a diagnostic tool. You are interested in identifying evidence in the literature as to how well quantitative ultrasound (QUS) separate those patients who suffer from bone fractures from those that do not, and to what extent QUS can be used to predict which patients will suffer from bone fractures in the future.
2 As a researcher your main research interest is osteoporosis (brittleness of the bones). In order to prevent bone fractures in patients suffering from osteoporosis it is important to maximise and maintain bone strength. The bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) are important indicators of skeletal strength. Earlier studies have indicated that that BMC and BMD are influenced by physical activity, and you are interested in obtaining evidence from the literature of the effect of physical exercise and stimulation on bone strength as well as muscle strength.
3 As a researcher your main research interest is osteoporosis (brittleness of the bones). Earlier research has been shown that osteoporosis is influenced by a variety of factors, such as physical activity, age and sex of patients, whether women patients are pre- or postmenopausal etc. You are interested in finding evidence from the literature that can indicate how genetic factors affect osteoporosis, and if there is a risk of osteoporosis to be a hereditary disease. You give special attention to studies that compare monovular twins with biovular twins.
Langer, L., & Frokjaer, E. (2008). Improving Web search transparency by using a Venn diagram interface. Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (NordCHI): Building Bridges, 249-256.
Task type: Exploratory Web search
Task type definition: "The tasks were designed in a way, which meant that there were no final answers as such to them" (p.253)
Tasks:
1 You want to find a Christmas present for your mother. Her gift wish is a book and your task is to find two books matching her interests. One book has to be a new release while the other book has to be an antiquarian. Your mother is interested in historical novels and travel (especially Central America).
Kelly, D., Wacholder, N., Rittman, R., Sun, Y., Kantor, P., Small, S., & Strzalkowski, T. (2007). Using interview data to identify evaluation criteria for interactive, analytical question-answering systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(7), 1032-1043.
Task type: Analytical questions
Task type definition: "The answers to analytical questions are considerably more complex than answers to factual and definitional questions such as those used in the TREC QA track... An adequate answer... may encompass reactions by a variety of individuals and organizations... An answer of some depth is required; depth depends on the characteristics of the person who asks the question and the context in which the question is asked." (p.1035)
Gwizdka, J. (2008). Revisiting search task difficulty: Behavioral and individual difference measures. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 45, 12 pages.
Task type: Fact Finding, Simple Structure
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)... [A task with simple structure is one] where the information need is satisfied by a single piece of information" (p.2)
Tasks:
1 You love history and, in particular, you are interested in the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights). You have read about their period of power, and now you want to learn more about their decline. What year was the Order defeated in a battle by a Polish-Lithuanian army?
Task type: Fact Finding, Hierarchical Structure
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)... [A task with hierarchical structure is one] where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept (a depth search)" (p.2)
Tasks:
1 A friend has just sent an email from an Internet caf in the southern USA where she is on a hiking trip. She tells you that she has just stepped into an anthill of small red ants and has a large number of painful bites on her leg. She wants to know what species of ants they are likely to be, how dangerous they are and what she can do about the bites. What will you tell her?
Task type: Fact Finding, Parallel Structure
Task type definition: "The goal of a fact finding task is to find one or more specific pieces of information (e.g., name of a person or an organization, product information, a numerical value; a date)... [A task with parallel structure is one] where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy (a breadth search)" (p.2)
Tasks:
1 As a history buff, you have heard of the quiet revolution, the peaceful revolution and the velvet revolution. For a skill-testing question to win an iPod you have been asked how they differ from the April 19th revolution.
Task type: Information Gathering, Hierarchical Structure
Task type definition: "The goal of an information gathering task is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic... [A task with hierarchical structure is one] where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept (a depth search)" (p.2)
Tasks:
1 You recently heard about the book "Fast Food Nation," and it has really influenced the way you think about your diet. You note in particular the amount and types of food additives contained in the things that you eat every day. Now you want to understand which food additives pose a risk to your physical health, and are likely to be listed on grocery store labels.
Task type: Information Gathering, Parallel Structure
Task type definition: "The goal of an information gathering task is to collect several pieces of information about a given topic... [A task with parallel structure is one] where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy (a breadth search)" (p.2)
Tasks:
1 Friends are planning to build a new house and have heard that using solar energy panels for heating can save a lot of money. Since they do not know anything about home heating and the issues involved, they have asked for your help. You are uncertain as well, and do some research to identify some issues that need to be considered in deciding between more conventional methods of home heating and solar panels.
Kelly, D. (2009). Methods for evaluating interactive information retrieval systems with users. Foundations and Trends in Information Retrieval, 3(1-2), 1-224.
Jose, J.M., Furner, J., & Harper, D.J. (1998). Spatial querying for image retrieval: A user-oriented evaluation. Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development of Information Retrieval, 232-240.
Task type: Image retrieval tasks
Task type definition: "We asked them to imagine that they were a freelance designer, with responsibility for the design of leaflets on various subjects for the Scottish Tourist Board. We supplied them with a template for one of these leaflets, which identified the locations and the varying characteristics of 3 slots where photographs were to be inserted. (One slot on the front page, for instance, was to be superimposed with some title text; another was to be inlaid with smaller images.) We told each subject to assume that their task was to make a selection, from a large collection of images, of those 3 images that in their opinion would be most appropriate for filling the slots in a leaflet covering a particular theme." (p.235)
Joho, H., Hannah, D., & Jose, J.M. (2008). Comparing collaborative and independent search in a recall-oriented task. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Information Interaction in Context (IIiX), 89-96.
Task type: Recall-oriented search task
Task type definition: "The task was to find as many relevant documents as possible for a topic." (p.90)
Tasks:
1 You are a member of an information broker company who specialises in finding relevant information based on a clients information need. Today, you are asked to find as many relevant documents as possible from a database of newswires. A small team, consisting of you and your partner, is assigned to carry out todays task. Our search interface allows the team to share the following information during the search: Query terms submitted Documents viewed Documents bookmarked In addition, you can send a text message to your partner to discuss anything during the task. If necessarily, you can have a verbal communication with your partner. At the end of the task, the bookmarked documents will be sent to the client. The information need required by todays client is as follows. Please read it carefully and bookmark as many relevant documents as possible, while avoiding bookmarking non-relevant documents. Number: 401, foreign minorities, Germany Description: What language and cultural differences impede the integration of foreign minorities in Germany? Narrative: A relevant document will focus on the causes of the lack of integration in a significant way; that is, the mere mention of immigration difficulties is not relevant. Documents that discuss immigration problems unrelated to Germany are also not relevant.
Ingwersen, P., & Jarvelin, K. (2005). The Turn: Integration of Information Seeking and Retrieval. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Verlag.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: "A search task is a sequence of activities with the goal of finding specified information the specification may range from narrow and detailed, e.g., a fact, to broad and vague, e.g. something about memory problems in old age. The activities may involve the use of IR systems. However, we use the term also for seeking tasks involving no use of IR systems. In the real life search tasks are natural, emerging from perceived work tasks of real actors. In research settings, search tasks may be simulated (Martyn and Lancaster 1981; Borlund and Ingwersen 1997; Borlund 2000ab), involving a specified work task scenario, or just assigned search topics, like in typical IR experiments." (p.73)
He, D., Brusilovsky, P., Grady, J., Li, Q., & Ahn, J. (2007). How up-to-date should it be? The value of instant profiling and adaptation in information filtering. Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, 699-705.
Haggerty, A., White, R.W., & Jose, J.M. (2004). NewsFlash: Adaptive TV news delivery on the web. In Nurnberger, A., & Detyniecki, M. (eds.), Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval 2003. Springer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3094, 72-86.
Task type: Original task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are considering travelling abroad, you have however been getting strange letters through the post, informing you that you are defaulting on credit card accounts you dont have. You are concerned that someone may have stolen your identity. Try to find if there are any similar cases in the news today.
Task type: Follow-up task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Derek Bonds family were interviewed after his release. What was their opinion on the actions of the British government in this case?
Goker, A., & Myrhaug, H. (2008). Evaluation of a mobile information system in context. Information Processing & Management, 44(1), 39-65.
Task type: General tasks (Study 1)
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are hungry, want to eat and are looking for food / a restaurant (in the area of Calle Alemanes).
2 You need information on or about the Cathedral.
3 You need information on or about Plaza de San Francisco.
4 You need information on or about Plaza del Salvador.
5 You would like to find interesting places around Calle Francos.
6 You want to find some information about the Peyre Shopping centre, and shops within it.
Task type: Specific tasks (Study 1)
Task type definition: "The S[pecific] tasks were to test a specific feature such as the pop-up of a content item when the participant is within an information zone determined by a tag." (p.50-51)
Task type: See task (Study 3)
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are in the tourist centre of Seville. Seville has a fascinating inner city with many places to see such as a Cathedral, fortress/palace (Alcazar), inner gardens, churches, squares, and so on. Hopefully you are interested in seeing or finding out more information about one of these places nearby. Make a search that would describe your need for further information on any of these places to see.
Task type: Eat task (Study 3)
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are in the tourist centre of Seville. There are narrow streets, small squares, eating places, meeting points and so on. You are at such a place at the moment. You would like to find somewhere to eat. You may wish to eat by yourself or with friends. Make a search so that you can find a suitable nearby place to eat.
Freund, L.S. (2008). Exploiting task-document relations in support of information retrieval in the workplace. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are installing WebSphere Portal Version 5.1 in a z/OS environment for the first time for a customer. The customer wants to know if there are any required pre-requisites for the operating system or WAS before installing Portal. Search for reliable factual information on pre-requisites that you can provide to the customer.
2 You are the technical lead on an engagement to deploy MQ Workflow in a pre-existing WAS environment. You need to figure out how to configure the customers applications so that they can find the MQ Workflow JARS. Search for a document that explains how to configure WAS applications to use MQ Workflow.
3 You are mentoring a clients IT team in migrating from Dynamo 5.0 to Websphere App Server. Youre preparing a kick-off session for them to learn about the process, best practices and pitfalls. Search for information that you can use to prepare the presentation and/or give to the client to support their learning process.
4 You have been called in to troubleshoot a problem resulting from an upgrade to the current version of Websphere MQ on an AIX platform. Since the upgrade, the customers COBOL legacy application fails with return code 2018. Search for information that might be of use to you in identifying and resolving this problem.
5 You are advising a customer IT team on a long term project to develop a J2EE 1.4 web services application for WAS. The customer asks for you advice on whether to do session handling through stateful session beans or HTTP session objects. Search for information that would be useful to them in making this decision.
6 You are working with a financial institution to architect an enterprise service bus (ESB) solution in the framework of SOA. You are fairly new to ESBs and you need to evaluate the different implementation patterns and decide on the best approach for this client. Search for information that would help you identify the patterns, evaluate them, and reach a decision.
7 You are doing performance tuning for a Websphere Commerce application. You know that there is an option that turns on logging for the JVM heap garbage collection, but you cant remember what it is. Search for information that includes command syntax and how it is used.
8 You are trying to help a junior colleague who is on a remote troubleshooting engagement for Websphere Portal. You suspect that slow authentication response times are related to configuration issues with the LDAP server. Search for information that would be of use to your colleague for problem determination and resolution for this engagement.
Brajnik, G., Mizzaro, S., Tasso, C., & Venuti, F. (2002). Strategic help in user interfaces for information retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 53(5), 343-358.
Borlund, P., & Ingwersen, P. (1999). The application of work tasks in connection with the evaluation of interactive information retrieval systems: Empirical results. Mira '99: Evaluating Interactive Information Retrieval (Glasgow, UK, April 14-16, 1999), 1-18. www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_mi99_paper1.pdf‎.
Task type: Simulated work task situation plus indicative request
Task type definition: "The simulated work task situation helps to describe to the test person: the source of the information need; the environment of the situation; the problem which has to be solved; and serves to make the test person understand the objective of the search... The indicative request is a suggestion to the test person about what to search for." (p.2)
Tasks:
1 Simulated work task situation: After your graduation you will be looking for a job in industry. You want information to help you focus your future job seeking. You know it pays to know the market. You would like to find some information about employment patterns in industry and what kind of qualifications employers will be looking for from future employees. Indicative request: Find for instance something about future employment trends in industry, i.e. areas of growth and decline.
2 Simulated work task situation: You have got a new student job with a local branch of one of the wildlife protection organisations. Your responsibility is to maintain and update the web pages of the organisation. You have been informed that the organisations next big campaign will be on how to prevent the decline of wildlife species, focusing on the situation in Europe. As a new member of staff you feel you need some basic background information so you have decided to investigate the European situation with particular reference to problems caused by environmental and climate changes. Indicative request: Find for instance something about the steps taken to save species of wildlife.
3 Simulated work task situation: Some friends of yours are about to visit you and as a surprise you are planning a trip for all of you to the Isle of Arran. You have heard rumours that some of the ferries to Arran are less safe than others. In addition to this you have recently seen the movie Titanic. You would therefore like to retrieve information about the causes of safety problems on ferries as well as some information about how to prevent accidents. Indicative request: Find for instance something about ferry sinking.
4 Simulated work task situation: There has been a burglary in your flat. Among the things stolen was an old and unique piece of jewellery with a high value of affect. You called the police, who were not very hopeful of getting the jewellery back. They said that there had been several such burglaries in the areas within the previous few months. Youre interested in finding out about similar cases and more specifically the details and the consequences of the crimes. Indicative request: Find for instance something about the buying or selling of stolen objects.
5 Simulated work task situation: The other night you were at a party where the Hubble Telescope was discussed as one of the other guests knew quite a lot about this subject. Now you want to improve your own knowledge of this topic and more specifically you want to know about the Telescopes technical drawbacks and scientific achievements. Indicative request: Find for instance something about the launch of the Hubble Telescope in 1991.
Task type: Simulated work task situation only
Task type definition: "The simulated work task situation helps to describe to the test person: the source of the information need; the environment of the situation; the problem which has to be solved; and serves to make the test person understand the objective of the search... The exclusion of the indicative request (and definition) makes the sim-2 version more semantically open.
Tasks:
1 Simulated work task situation: After your graduation you will be looking for a job in industry. You want information to help you focus your future job seeking. You know it pays to know the market. You would like to find some information about employment patterns in industry and what kind of qualifications employers will be looking for from future employees.
2 Simulated work task situation: You have got a new student job with a local branch of one of the wildlife protection organisations. Your responsibility is to maintain and update the web pages of the organisation. You have been informed that the organisations next big campaign will be on how to prevent the decline of wildlife species, focusing on the situation in Europe. As a new member of staff you feel you need some basic background information so you have decided to investigate the European situation with particular reference to problems caused by environmental and climate changes.
3 Simulated work task situation: Some friends of yours are about to visit you and as a surprise you are planning a trip for all of you to the Isle of Arran. You have heard rumours that some of the ferries to Arran are less safe than others. In addition to this you have recently seen the movie Titanic. You would therefore like to retrieve information about the causes of safety problems on ferries as well as some information about how to prevent accidents.
4 Simulated work task situation: There has been a burglary in your flat. Among the things stolen was an old and unique piece of jewellery with a high value of affect. You called the police, who were not very hopeful of getting the jewellery back. They said that there had been several such burglaries in the areas within the previous few months. Youre interested in finding out about similar cases and more specifically the details and the consequences of the crimes.
5 Simulated work task situation: The other night you were at a party where the Hubble Telescope was discussed as one of the other guests knew quite a lot about this subject. Now you want to improve your own knowledge of this topic and more specifically you want to know about the Telescopes technical drawbacks and scientific achievements.
Bierig, R. (2008). Event and map content personalisation in a mobile and context-aware environment. PhD. thesis, Robert Gordon University.
Task type: Task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Situation: You are currently at the Art Gallery/His Majesty's Theatre. You just found out that there is an ongoing Dance and Musical Event Festival here in Aberdeen. Not yet knowing what is offered, you want to make yourself a picture of what events are available for tonight. Task: Bearing in mind the given situation, please find one or more interesting events which you would consider.
2 Situation: A friend has phoned you today telling you about the currently ongoing Aberdeen Musical and Dance Festival which offers a large amount of events in and around the city centre. Your friend asked you to find information about dance event performances in order to select something. Your busy working day did not allow you do that so far; now you are at His Majesty's Theatre where you suppose to meet your friend for a drink. You want to use the waiting time to search up some information before you meet. Task: Bearing in mind the given situation, please find one or more suitable dance events which you would consider.
3 Situation: This morning, you and your friend arrived in Aberdeen. After you found your hotel, you and your friend are roaming round in the city centre - now you are at the Art Gallery. It has come to your attention that there is currently a musical and dance festival in town offering a large amount of events in and around the city centre. That is a fortunate incident as you both share a common interest for good musicals. Task: Bearing in mind the given situation, please find one or more suitable musical events which you would consider.
Arapakis, I., Jose, J.M., & Gray, P.D. (2008). Affective feedback: An investigation into the role of emotions in the information seeking process. Proceedings of the 31st ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development of Information Retrieval, 395-402.
Task type: Easy tasks
Task type definition: "The [task difficulty] levels were controlled by assigning topics with the appropriate number of relevant documents within the corpus (more than 100, less than 20, one or zero), therefore improving or decreasing the chance of one finding relevant documents accordingly." (p.396)
Task type: Very difficult tasks
Task type definition: "The [task difficulty] levels were controlled by assigning topics with the appropriate number of relevant documents within the corpus (more than 100, less than 20, one or zero), therefore improving or decreasing the chance of one finding relevant documents accordingly." (p.396)
Task type: Practially impossible tasks
Task type definition: "The [task difficulty] levels were controlled by assigning topics with the appropriate number of relevant documents within the corpus (more than 100, less than 20, one or zero), therefore improving or decreasing the chance of one finding relevant documents accordingly." (p.396)
Marchionini, G., & Liebscher, P. (1991). Performance in electronic encyclopedias: Implications for adaptive systems. Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 39-48.
Task type: Fact retrieval questions
Task type definition: "Some asked participants to retrieve a single fact from the database, e.g., in what year was penicillin first synthesized. Others asked them to retrieve multiple facts, e.g., list the names of planetary moons that appear in the database... The number of facets in the questions and the number of possible answers in the text were parallel for each of the four sets of four questions." (p.41)
Yang, K., Maglaughlin, K.L., & Newby, G.B. (2001). Passage feedback with IRIS. Information Processing & Management, 37(3), 521-541.
Wu, M., Fuller, M., & Wilkinson, R. (2001). Using clustering and classification approaches in interactive retrieval. Information Processing & Management, 37(3), 459-484.
Task type: Instance recall tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Wu, M., Fuller, M., & Wilkinson, R. (2001). Searcher performance in question answering. Proceedings of the 24th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 375-381.
Task type: Type I questions
Task type definition: "The Type 1 questions are of the form <>... For the Type 1 questions, a complete answer consists of n answer components, plus a list of supporting documents." (p.378)
Tasks:
1 What are the names of three US national parks where one can see redwoods?
2 Identify a site with Roman ruins in present day France.
3 Name four films in which Orson Welles appeared.
4 Name three countries that imported Cuban sugar during the period of time covered by the document collection.
5 Name four US national parks where you can find redwoods.
6 Name three films in which Orson Welles appeared.
7 Name three therapies for controlling Parkinsons disease.
8 Name three France cities where you can find Roman ruins.
Task type: Type 2 questions
Task type definition: "The Type 2 questions are of the form <>... For the Type 2 questions, two facts are usually needed to make the comparison, plus supporting documents." (p.378)
Tasks:
1 Which childrens TV program was on the air longer: the original Micky Mouse Club or the original Howdy Doody Show?
2 Which painting did Edvard Munch complete first: Vampire or Puberty?
3 Which was the last dynasty in China: Qing or Ming?
4 Is Denmark larger or smaller in population than Norway?
5 Which is common official language of Belgium and Swiss: English or French?
6 Which is the last dynasty of China: Qing or Ming?
7 Who is the first Prime Minister of Australia: Deakin or Barton?
8 Which planet is bigger: Jupiter or Mars?
Wolfram, D., Volz, A., & Dimitroff, A. (1996). The effect of linkage structure on retrieval performance in a hypertext-based bibliographic retrieval system. Information Processing & Management, 32(5), 529-541.
Task type: Known item search
Task type definition: Author and/or title
Task type: Specific keyword search
Task type definition: Not defined
Task type: Specific subject search
Task type definition: Not defined
Task type: General subject search
Task type definition: Not defined
Williams, M.E., Kinnucan, M., Smith, L.C., Lannom, L., & Cho, D. (1986). Comparative analysis of online retrieval interfaces. Proceedings of the 49th ASIS Annual Meeting, 365-370.
Task type: Simple popular interest medical queries
Task type definition: "The simplest queries contained a single concept. An example of a single-concept query is, 'You recently heard a lecture about bibliotherapy, the use of reading as a therapeutic technique. You found the lecture interesting and would like to find out what the medical literature has to say about this topic.'" (p.366)
Wiesman, F., van der Herik, H.J., & Hasman, A. (2004). Information retrieval by metabrowsing. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 55(7), 565-578.
Wang, X., & Liebscher, P. (1988). Information seeking in hypertext: Effects of physical format and search strategy. Proceedings of the 51st ASIS Annual Meeting, 200-204.
Task type: Fact retrieval questions
Task type definition: "All questions required retrieval of specific facts from one or more articles in the database." (p.201)
Wacholder, N., & Liu, L. (2006). User preference: A measure of query-term quality. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(12), 1566-1580.
Task type: Questions of varying difficulty
Task type definition: To obtain an initial assessment of difficulty, one of the experimenters used ESBI to answer all questions and rated each question with regard to how difficult it was to answer using the ESBI system. We used a scale of 1 to 7; the lower end of the scale represented questions that the experimenter judged as easy because the words used in the question were easily found in the list of query terms and because one or more of these terms fairly obviously would lead the user directly to an appropriate answer; the high end of the scale was used for questions where one or more words in the question did not occur in any of the query terms or where one or more words in the question appeared in many query terms. (p.1570)
Tasks:
1 What are the characteristics of Marchioninis model of browsing?
2 What are some common types of constraints on access to information?
3 What characteristics of information seekers affect their browsing style?
4 What factors determine when users decide to stop browsing?
5 In what respects do searching and browsing differ?
6 What are some insights that researchers have achieved about browsing hypertext?
7 Is browsing an efficient way to look for information?
8 In what ways is browsing of printed text different than browsing of electronic text?
9 What are some ways that researchers define information?
10 What kinds of information can people browse?
11 What kinds of difficulties do information seekers encounter while browsing?
12 How does an information seekers mental model of the world affect their browsing behavior?
13 The authors of this text list many different kinds of browsing. List up to ten of these kinds of browsing.
14 Identify some information-seeking principles.
15 What has a greater impact on whether information is actually usedaccess to information or quality of information?
16 Identify some ways that properties of an information system can be correlated with browsing activities.
17 In the field of library studies, how do conceptualizations of access and browsing differ?
18 List some important dimensions of the information-seeking process.
19 In what ways do patterns of browsing and nonbrowsing differ?
20 List as many factors as you can that affect how users seek information.
21 Find a definition of browsing.
22 What types of knowledge or experience affect a browsers ability to benefit from the browsing process?
23 What is a document surrogate?
24 How does context influence information seeking?
25 What properties of a computer interface can affect the results of browsing?
26 What is Panopticon?
Veerasamy, A., & Heikes, R. (1997). Effectiveness of a graphical display of retrieval results. Proceedings of the 20th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 236-245.
Task type: TREC topics
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Document will report a poaching method used against a certain type of wildlife.
2 Document will report specific consequence(s) of the U.S.S Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
3 Document will report on the objectives, processes, and organization of the human genome project.
4 Document will report on attempts by Pacific Telesis to diversify beyond its basic business of providing local telephone service.
5 Document will describe how, and how effectively, the so-called pro-Israel lobby operates in the United States.
6 Document will discuss legal tort reform (a civ;l wrong for which the injured party seeks a judgment) with regard to placing limitations on monetary compensation to plaintiffs.
Veerasamy, A., & Belkin, N.J. (1996). Evaluation of a tool for visualization of information retrieval results. Proceedings of the 20th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 85-92.
Task type: TREC interactive track topic
Task type definition: Not further defined
Tasks:
1 Are current laws of the sea uniform? If not, what are some of the areas of disagreement?
2 What is the economic impact of recycling tires?
Vakkari, P., Jones, S., MacFarlane, A., & Sormunen, E. (2004). Query exhaustivity, relevance feedback and search success in automatic and interactive query expansion. Journal of Documentation, 60(2), 109-127.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Identify documents that discuss the use of organic fertilizers (composted sludge, ash, vegetable waste, micro-organisms, etc.) as soil enhancers
2 Find information on the effects of dietary intakes of potassium, magnesium and fruits and vegetables as determinants of bone mineral density in elderly men and women thus preventing osteoporosis (bone decay)
3 Find documents that discuss the damage ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun can do to eyes
4 Find accounts of selfless heroic acts by individuals or small groups for the benefit of others or a cause
Turpin, A.H., & Hersh, W. (2001). Why batch and user evaluations do not give the same results. Proceedings of the 24th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 225-231.
Task type: Instance recall tasks
Task type definition: "Instance recall was defined as the number of instances of a topic retrieved" (p.226)
Tasks:
1 What tropical storms hurricanes and typhoons have caused property damage and or loss of life?
2 What countries import Cuban sugar?
3 What countries other than the US and China have or have had a declining birth rate?
4 What are the latest developments in robotic technology and it use?
5 What countries have experienced an increase in tourism?
6 In what countries have tourists been subject to acts of violence causing bodily harm or death?
Task type: Question-answering tasks, type 1
Task type definition: These tasks "required users to find a small number of answers for a topic" (p.227)
Tasks:
1 What are the names of three US national parks where one can find redwoods?
2 Identify a site of Roman ruins in present day France?
3 Name four films in which Orson Welles actually appeared.
4 Name 3 countries that imported Cuban sugar during the period of time covered by the collection.
Task type: Question-answering tasks, type 2
Task type definition: These tasks "asked users to select the correct answer from two given" (p.227)
Tasks:
1 Which children's TV program was on the air longer, the original Mickey Mouse Club or the original Howdy Doody Show?
2 Which painting did Edvard Munch complete first, "Vampire" or "Puberty"?
3 Which was the last dynasty of China: Qing or Ming?
4 Is Denmark larger or smaller in population than Norway?
Topi, H., & Lucas, W. (2005). Mix and match: Combining terms and operators for successful Web searches. Information Processing & Management, 41(4), 801-817.
Topi, H., & Lucas, W. (2005). Searching the Web: Operator assistance required. Information Processing & Management, 41(2), 383-403.
Task type: Simple queries
Task type definition: "Queries required for the first category were the simplest, consisting of the use of the conjunctive AND operator between two single search terms." (p.393)
Tasks:
1 Who is the chair of the philosophy department?
2 In what month and year did the Smith family double its gift to the Smith Center?
3 What former chair who established Bentleys English program died in Weymouth?
Task type: More complex queries
Task type definition: "The second category required AND operators for joining three terms in the first case, two terms and a phrase in the second case, and two phrases in the third case. This categorization was based on data from our pilot study, which found these three cases to be of equivalent difficulty for searchers." (p.393)
Tasks:
1 From what institution did Professor Davis of the management department receive his BSEE?
2 What faculty member of the management department whose first name is John attended Syracuse University?
3 Which course discusses both starting salaries and a training program?
Task type: Most complex queries
Task type definition: "Queries associated with information requests in the third category were the most complex in that they required at least four terms or phrases and the use of the negation operator, NOT. In two of these cases, more compact queries could be formed by applying the NOT operator to a group of terms joined with disjunctive ORs." (p.393)
Tasks:
1 What faculty member of the management department whose first name is Joseph but whose last name is not Byrnes taught and worked in the Middle East?
2 What faculty member has an MA from Indiana University, is not in the philosophy or management department, and is interested in politics?
3 What faculty member in the accountancy department has a degree from a college in Boston and is not named Charles, Priscilla, or Jane?
Szlavik, Z., Tombros, A., & Lalmas, M. (2006). The use of summaries in XML retrieval. In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Digital Libraries, Alicante, Spain, September 17-22, 2006), 75-86.
Task type: Background type tasks
Task type definition: "Background type tasks instructed searchers to look for information about a certain topic (e.g., concerns about the CIA and FBI's monitoring of the public)" (p.79)
Task type: List type tasks
Task type definition: "List type tasks asked searchers to create a list of products that are connected to the topic of their tasks (e.g. a list of speech recognition software)." (p.79)
Swan, R.C., & Allan, J. (1998). Aspect windows, 3-D visualizations, and indirect comparisons of information retrieval systems. Proceedings of the 21st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 173-181.
Suomela, S., & Kekalainen, J. (2006). User evaluation of ontology as query construction tool. Information Retrieval, 9(4), 455-475.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 What cholesterol lowering edible fats exist on the market and how has their market situation developed worldwide?
2 How has the import controversy over transgenic food products between the United States and Europe developed?
3 How have the milk processing companies in Finland concentrated and reduced ice cream manufacture?
4 How has the demand of organic products developed in Finland within the past few years? What is restraining the sale of organic products?
Stein, A. (1997). Usability and assessments of multimodal interaction in the SPEAK! system: An experimental case study. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 3(1), 159-180.
Task type: Retrieval task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Find the biography of Charles R. Mackintosh and save it.
2 Two artists named Behrens contributed to the design of the Reichstag in Berlin, What kind of work of art did they make? Which one came to work in Dannstadt? When, in which year?
3 Search for a sculptor who was a member of the Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) colony in Darmstadt and save the document.
4 Search for French Impressionist artists (or those whose style was influenced by Impressionism).
Task type: Complex retrieval task
Task type definition: "An additional, quite complex task" (p.166)
Tasks:
1 Search for Art Nouveau architects who lived in Glasgow or Vienna or Darmstadt.
Shapira, B., Taieb-Maimon, M., & Nemeth, Y. (2005). Subjective and objective evaluation of interactive and automatic query expansion. Online Information Review, 29(4), 374-390.
Task type: Searching tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You are not sure about the safety of genetically engineered foods and would like to find more information and research on this topic. Name four potential types of safety problems that have been raised.
2 You are interested in learning more about what measures the US government has taken since 2001 to prevent Mad-Cow Disease. Identify three such measures.
3 Name/find three research programs/projects that investigate the treatment/causes of dwarfism.
4 How much does the federal government spend on mental health, and to what entities does the funding go?
5 You are concerned with privacy issues related to electronic information and would like to know what laws have been passed by the US Congress regarding these issues. Identify three such laws.
6 What criteria does the Immigration and Naturalization Service use to approve visa applications from foreign nationals (list three)?
Smyth, B., & Balfe, E. (2006). Anonymous personalization in collaborative web search. Information Retrieval, 9(2), 165-190.
Task type: Fact-finding questions
Task type definition: Each question required the participant "to find out a particular fact (time, place, persons name, system name etc.)" (p.177)
Tasks:
1 What game did Arthur Samuels help computers to play?
2 Who was Shakey?
3 How many bits are in a nibble?
4 What was the name of the first microprocessor?
5 Who introduced minimax?
6 Who co-founded Apple with Steve Jobs?
7 Where does Michael Jordan teach?
8 Who wrote the first e-mail?
9 Who invented the concept of a universal machine?
10 Who founded Firefly?
Risden, K., Czerwinski, M.P., Munzner, T., & Cook, D.B. (2000). An initial examination of ease of use for 2D and 3D information visualizations of web content. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53(5), 695-714.
Task type: Existing category, one parent
Task type definition: "The subject was asked to find an existing category" and "the target category and requested response involved a single parent/path" (p.706)
Tasks:
1 You want to add content about Pope John Paul to an existing category by the same name. Find the Pope John Paul category.
Task type: Existing category, multiple parents
Task type definition: "The subject was asked to find an existing category" and "the target category and requested response involved... multiple parents/paths" (p.706)
Tasks:
1 You want to add "buying photographic art supplies" to the existing Photography category. Find the category. Then figure out what other paths people can take to get to this content.
Task type: New category, one parent
Task type definition: "The subject was asked to... add a new category to the directory scheme" and "the target category and requested response involved a single parent/path" (p.706)
Tasks:
1 Create a new category for content about "Elementary Schools" and find a logical place to put it. Determine if there are other paths people could take to the content. Take those paths into account if necessary when coming up with the new category label.
Task type: New category, multiple parents
Task type definition: "The subject was asked to... add a new category to the directory scheme" and "the target category and requested response involved... multiple parents/paths" (p.706)
Tasks:
1 Create a new category for "Software tools for creating effective e-commerce Web sites". Find a logical place for this category. Determine at least one other path that you would create to this category. Take this into account if necessary when creating your new category.
Reiterer, H., Mussler, G., Mann, T.M., & Handschuh, S. (2000). INSYDER - An information assistant for business intelligence. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 112-119.
Task type: Specific fact finding
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 How long is the Danuber river?
Task type: Extended fact finding
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Which books had been tend written by the author John Irving?
Qu, Y., Furnas, G., & Walstrum, B. (2006). Using category information for relationship exploration in textual data. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 43, n.p.
Task type: Baseline question
Task type definition: One asked about a single fact; one asked about a relationship involving topics that did not have corresponding categories (all other "questions were about relationships between topics that have corresponding categories in the data set") (p.7)
Tasks:
1 Who was the president of Azerbaijan in 1994?
2 Azerbaijan had war on the territory of Nagorno Karabakh with which country?
Task type: Dot question
Task type definition: Question "asking about the relationship between two individual topics, whose answer resides in a dot (the crossover of two individual topics) in the diagram" (p.8)
Tasks:
1 Do the articles mention suspicions that Russia got involved in the coup in Azerbaijan in Oct, 1994?
2 Do the articles mention that Georgia got involved in the peace process in Nagorno Karabakh?
3 Do the articles mention suspicions that Armenia got involved in the subway fire in Baku, 1995?
4 Do the articles mention that coups in Azerbaijan influenced the negotiation of oil routes?
5 Do the articles mention any evidence that the subway fire was related to the parliament election two weeks later?
6 In the choices of oil route, did Georgia and Turkey have shared interests or conflicting interests, or none of them?
Task type: Line question
Task type definition: "Questions asking about relationships between one topic and many other topics, whose answer resides in many 'dots' over a 'line'" in the diagram (p.8)
Tasks:
1 Do the articles mention any evidence that any of the following countries tried to influence the election in Azerbaijan: Russia, United State, Turkey, Iran, Armenia?
2 According to the articles, Great Britain got involved in which of the following Azerbaijan issues: Oil deal, Peace process of Nagorno Karabakh, Election, Subway fire, Coup?
Task type: Area question
Task type definition: "Questions asking about relationship between many topics and many other topics, whose answer resides in many 'dots' over an 'area" in the diagram (p.8)
Tasks:
1 In which of the following events did both Russia and United State get involved in: Oil deal, Peace process of Nagorno Karabakh, Election, Subway fire, Coup?
Pirolli, P., Schank, P., Hearst, M., & Diehl, C. (1996). Scatter/gather browsing communicates the topic structure of a very large text collection. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 213-220.
Task type: Hard topics
Task type definition: Those topics "with the fewest (expert-identified) relevant documents (M = 46)", as "measured by the mean number of relevant documents in the Tipster collection as identified by information retrieval experts associated with TREC" (p.215)
Task type: Easy topics
Task type definition: Those topics "with the most relevant documents (M = 865)", as "measured by the mean number of relevant documents in the Tipster collection as identified by information retrieval experts associated with TREC" (p.215)
Task type: Medium topics
Task type definition: Those topics "about the median number of relevant documents... (M = 303), as "measured by the mean number of relevant documents in the Tipster collection as identified by information retrieval experts associated with TREC" (p.215)
Pirolli, P., Card, S.K., & van der Wege, M.M. (2003). The effects of information scent on visual search in the Hyperbolic Tree Browser. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10(1), 20-53.
Task type: Simple retrieval
Task type definition: "Simple retrieval tasks required finding a leaf node in the tree" of the data structure. (p.30)
Tasks:
1 Find Lake Victoria
2 Find the Ebola virus
3 Find a hammer
4 Find the month of July
Task type: Complex retrieval
Task type definition: "Complex retrieval tasks also involved finding leaf nodes, but involved either some ambiguity and lack of familiarity or a degree of depth in the hierarchy." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 Find a cross-cut saw
2 Find a tomato
3 Find the discipline of climatology
4 Find a lobster
Task type: Local comparison
Task type definition: "Local comparison tasks involved comparison of several nodes that were reasonably close together in the tree structures." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 Which religion has the most holidays in this list?
2 Are there more fruits with pits or with cores?
3 How many North American pro soccer teams are named after animals?
4 Which digit appears in no BMW number?
Task type: Global comparison
Task type definition: "Global comparison tasks required comparison of several nodes in disparate parts of the tree." (p.30)
Tasks:
1 Which Greek deity has the same name as a space mission?
2 Find a big cat and an AL baseball team with the same name
3 What characteristic can describe both smell and taste?
4 How many Bonapartes ruled beyond the borders of France?
Petrelli, D., Levin, S., Beaulieu, M., & Sanderson, M. (2006). Which user interaction for cross-language information retrieval? Design issues and reflections. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(5), 709-722.
Park, S. (1999). User preferences when searching individual and integrated full-text databases. Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, 195-203.
Task type: Aspectual task
Task type definition: From TREC5 Interactive Track
Tasks:
1 Topic 274i, Electric Automobiles: Imagine that you are working for General Motors, and just started a project on electric automobiles. You have been asked to write a background paper that surveys different developments on electric automobiles. You have 20 minutes to find and save some articles that will be useful for this purpose. Please save at least one document that identifies EACH DIFFERENT recent development in the field of electric automobiles. If one document discusses several developments, then you need not save other documents that repeat those developments, since your goal is to identify the different ones that have been discussed.
Paek, T., Dumais, S., & Logan, R. (2004). WaveLens: A new view onto internet search results. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 727-734.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: "Participants were asked to find a web page that contained the answer to a question, from among a list of ten search results... questions were constructed with a unique answer that could be found in only one of the ten results" displayed (p.731)
Tasks:
1 Which site relates that 17 million Americans have diabetes?
Olston, C., & Chi, E.H. (2003). ScentTrails: Integrating browsing and searching on the web. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10(3), 177-197.
Task type: Browsing tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Find a copier with remote diagnostic technology that can do at least 80 copies per minute.
2 Find a 5 to 20 cpm (copies per minute) copier with photo support.
Task type: Searching tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Find a copier with recyclable toner.
2 Find a copier with glossy print capability.
3 Find a 400 dpi (dots per inch) copier with a counterfeit deterrent system.
Task type: Other tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You have a business at home and you want a copier with photo support.
2 Find a digital, black & white copier that supports rotation.
3 Find a black & white machine that supports scan, fax, print, and copy with collation.
Morehead, D.R., & Rouse, W.B. (1985). Online assessment of the value of information for searchers of a bibliographic data base. Information Processing & Management, 21(2), 83-101.
Meyyappan, N., Foo, S., & Chowdhury, G.G. (2004). Design and evaluation of a task-based digital library for the academic community. Journal of Documentation, 60(4), 449-75.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Not specified
Tasks:
1 Finding faculty members working in specific research areas.
2 Finding specific documents in the DWE.
3 Finding specific journal information.
4 Finding the author of an article.
5 Finding an article in a specialised area.
6 Finding citations of an article.
7 Identifying various techniques associated with a particular research methodology.
8 Identifying information from the Internet.
9 Identifying a number of information resources on a particular area.
10 Retrieving documents through OPACs.
Marshall, B., McDonald, D., Chen, H., & Chung, W. (2004). EBizPort: Collecting and analyzing business intelligence information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 55(10), 873-891.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: "Among the 3 search tasks, the first two tasks asked about recent activities of a company in the IT industry and the third task asked about the companys profile information." (p.885)
Task type: Browse task
Task type definition: The browse task "asked subjects to find themes related to recent events of the company." (p.885)
Mana-Lopez, M.J., de Buenaga, M., & Gomez-Hidalgo, J.M. (2004). Multidocument summarization: An added value to clustering in interactive retrieval. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 22(2), 215-241.
Task type: Hard topics
Task type definition: Topics with which subjects are less familiar (participant ratings of familiarity lower than 2.5)
Tasks:
1 352i, British Chunnel impacts
2 353i, Antarctic exploration
3 357i, territorial waters dispute
4 366i, commercial cyanide uses
5 387i, radioactive waste
Task type: Easy topics
Task type definition: Topics with which subjects are more familiar (participant ratings of familiarity greater than 2.5)
Tasks:
1 362i, human smuggling
2 365i, El Nino
3 392i, robotics
Ma, W. (2002). A database selection expert system based on reference librarian's database selection strategy: A usability and empirical evaluation. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 53(7), 567-580.
Task type: Search scenarios for the library user group
Task type definition: "Search scenarios for testing were selected from real reference questions collected at the Librarys central reference desk" (p.571)
Tasks:
1 Need articles on U.S. invasion of Normandy.
2 What is being done to deal with aging nuclear power plants? (need to find full-text articles about this topic for an undergraduate presentation)
3 Need to find articles and statistics on the current trend of women studying computer science.
4 Need to find articles that compare different literary reviews and criticism on Wilde, Oscar's "The Important of Being Earnest."
5 Water quality in developing countries (need to do in depth research as for a research project presentation).
6 "Rosencrantz and Gildenstern are Dead" (want articles which compared the play and the film).
7 A comparative look at the role of the church in the Mexican American community (need to do in depth research for a graduate dissertation).
8 Alcohol abuse in European countries (need to find full-text articles about this topic quickly for an undergraduate term paper assignment).
9 Want articles which outline the current events on stock market investment for a short undergraduate presentation.
10 Gun control in the United States (need to find full-text articles about this topic for an undergraduate term paper).
Task type: Search scenarios for library staff group
Task type definition: "Search scenarios for testing were selected from real reference questions collected at the Librarys central reference desk" (p.571)
Tasks:
1 Why do people buy a certain type of shoes? Do they think the shoes they decide upon represent something about their personality? (The user needed primary and scholarly information to write a market report about consumer behavior on buying footwear.)
2 What is being done to deal with aging nuclear power plants? (The user needed general level information to write a 6 page term paper. Full-text was preferred.)
3 A patron wanted articles which outline the current events on stock market investment.
4 Who was Lady Baltimore? (A user was researching on Latin American culture and would like to find out why many restaurants are named after her name.)
5 A user was looking for federal and non-federal grants and funding opportunities to support his research in the area of environmental science.
6 A student needed to compare different literary reviews and criticism on Oscar Wilde's "The Importance of Being Earnest" for his class assignment.
7 A student was looking for scholarly information about water quality in developing countries for a term paper project.
8 "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead." The patron wanted the articles which compared the play and the film.
9 A student taking History 263 was looking for information on the topic: "A comparative look at the role of the church in the Mexican American community" for her 10 page term paper project.
10 A user was looking for databases which include literary reviews or criticism of children's literature in the area of arts and humanities.
11 A user was looking for most recent statistical information about Arab American population in the US.
12 Current trends in women studying computer science. The patron needed most recent statistical figures and articles to write a report.
Leroy, G., Lally, A.M., & Chen, H. (2003). The use of dynamic contexts to improve casual internet searching. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 21(3), 229-253.
Larson, R.R. (2001). TREC interactive with Cheshire II. Information Processing & Management, 37(3), 485-505.
Koshman, S. (2005). Testing user interaction with a prototype visualization-based information retrieval system. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 56(8), 824-833.
Task type: IR task
Task type definition: "The scenario for this investigation builds on selecting a popular Associated Press story, providing a brief synopsis of the story and asking participants to find related news articles. Participants were asked to conduct this IR task to find more information on the subject of the news story." (Table 2 note, p.828)
Tasks:
1 Scenario: Please find more news articles related to the news article summary provided to you. This scenario applies to all tasks, but the subject matter changes for each task group. Participants are provided with the keywords to use in the query. Task 1 - Task objective: Can users find document items that relate to all keywords in their query? Test set-up: How many newspaper articles contain all the keywords or POIs identified in the query? Task description: Finding the star feature, invoking the star feature, counting the lines emanating from the document icon, examining the status bar for the headline.
2 Scenario: Please find more news articles related to the news article summary provided to you. This scenario applies to all tasks, but the subject matter changes for each task group. Participants are provided with the keywords to use in the query. Task 2 - Task objective: Can users execute a Boolean intersection and find the number of documents items related to two or more aspects of the query? Test set-up: How many newspaper articles relate to the keywords communist and reform? Task description: Selecting 1 color option for 1 POI and another color option for another POI, counting the document icons influenced by the system collision colorred.
Koshman, S. (2004). Comparing usability between a visualization and text-based system for information retrieval. Journal of Documentation, 60(5), 565-580.
Task type: IR tasks
Task type definition: Not defined further
Tasks:
1 Create a subset of approx. 20 retrieved items
2 Create a subset of approx. ten retrieved items
3 Find documents related to all query terms
4 Find documents relating to only two query terms and not any others
5 Construct a query to retrieve documents
Kim, J. (2005). Finding documents in a digital institutional repository: DSpace and Eprints. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 42, n.p.
Task type: Simple search tasks
Task type definition: Tasks using a simple search form
Tasks:
1 Search for a document with its entire title.
2 Search for the most recent document concerning deforestation.
3 Search for a document with three pieces of information: author name, year and topic (AIDS morbidity in Uganda).
4 Search for a document with two keywords (legal and copyrights) and author name.
5 Search for a document with two keywords (human rights and abortion) and year (2003).
Task type: Advanced search tasks
Task type definition: Tasks using the advanced search form
Tasks:
1 Search for conference proceedings with two title words (European Union and Enlargement).
2 Search for a document with two subject terms (commerce or international relations) and two titles words (nuclear and arms).
3 Search for a document with one subject (cosmology) and two author names.
4 Search for a bachelor's thesis concerning expert systems.
Task type: Browsing task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Identify the number of documents in a subject category.
Kaki, M. (2006). fKWIC: Frequency-based keyword-in-context index for filtering web search results. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(12), 1606-1615.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: "We constructed two sets of nine search tasks based on our experiences from previous studies. Each task required participants to collect links to relevant results pages. The task descriptions contained at least two central concepts, such as 'Find pictures (1) of Mount Pinatubo (2).'" (p.1610)
Tasks:
1 Find information about the space shuttle Challenger accident.
2 Find pictures of Mount Pinatubo.
3 Find information about what World Health Organization (WHO) does to cure river blindness.
Ju, B., & Gluck, M. (2005). User-process model approach to improve user interface usability. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 56(10), 1098-1112.
Task type: Test tasks
Task type definition: "Tasks were developed based on users typical work on the software as discerned in the menu development phase of this project" (p.1106)
Tasks:
1 Change the color of the icons in the data matrix to Green.
2 Find which two counties have the least risk of flooding.
3 Find counties that have high nuclear accident risk.
4 Locate the county where both dam failure and flooding are both low risk using the map. Name the county, and list its bivariate index level (dam failure and flooding).
Joho, H., Sanderson, M., & Beaulieu, M. (2004). A study of user interaction with a concept-based interactive query expansion support tool. Advances in Information Retrieval. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2997, 42-56.
Task type: Instance finding task
Task type definition: "Subjects are asked to find as many different instances or answers to the query as possible" (p.43)
Tasks:
1 "Number: 408i; Topic: tropical storms; Description:What tropical storms (hurricanes and typhoon) have caused property damage and/or loss of life?; Instances: In the time allotted, please find as many DIFFERENT storms of the sort described above as you can. Please save at least one document for EACH such DIFFERENT storm. If one document discusses several such storms, then you need not save other documents that repeat those, since your goal is to identify as many DIFFERENT storms of the sort described above as possible." (p.43)
Task type: Query optimising
Task type definition: "Searchers [were asked] to generate a so-called optimal or best query based on their search experience of the topic" (p.47)
Joho, H., & Jose, J.M. (2006). A comparative study of the effectiveness of search result presentation on the Web. Advances in Information Retrieval. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3936, 302-313.
Task type: Background search task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to find general background information on a topic. In our experiment, participants were asked to find the pages which provide the information about the recent change of student populations." (p.306)
Task type: Decision making task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to make a decision about a topic. In our experiment, participants were asked to find the best Hi-Fi speakers available in a target price. Participants were encouraged to compare the speakers details in the decision making." (p.306)
Task type: Known item search task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to find the information about a topic which was previously known by the searcher. In out experiment, participants were asked to find the current whereabouts of a person who assumed to be a previous colleague of the searcher." (p.306)
Task type: Topic distillation task
Task type definition: "This task asked participants to find a list of key resources for a topic. The definition of key resources was based on the instruction of the Web Track of TREC. The main criteria for being a key resource was that the website was principally devoted to the topic. In our experiment, participants were asked to find the key resources for designer handbags." (p.306)
Jansen, B.J., & Resnick, M. (2006). An examination of searcher's perceptions of nonsponsored and sponsored links during ecommerce web searching. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(14), 1949-1961.
Task type: General queries
Task type definition: "Queries representing a desire for information about a class of products" (p.1953)
Tasks:
1 You are looking for a tennis racquet to bring on vacation. Since you do not plan to bring it home, you want to find something low-priced. Find a low-priced tennis racquet for sale.
2 You need a disposable camera that can be used outdoors. Find a camera that meets your needs.
Task type: Brand-specific queries
Task type definition: "Queries representing a desire for information about a specific product item" (p.1953)
Tasks:
1 You want to give your son a 1989 Mark McGwire baseball card for his birthday. Find one for sale.
2 You are setting up a home entertainment center and you need a Sony 23 LCD HDTV monitor. Find one for sale.
Task type: Location-specific queries
Task type definition: "Queries representing a desire for information about a product in a specific geographical location" (p.1953)
Tasks:
1 You are looking for a dirt bike to give to your nephew in Pittsburgh. You want to use a local store. Find a dirt bike for sale in Pittsburgh.
2 You finished your Epil Stop & Spray hair remover and need a replacement right away. Find a 4-oz container for sale in Los Angeles.
Jahoda, G., & Stursa, M.L. (1969). A comparison of a keyword from title index with a single access point per document alphabetic subject index. American Documentation, 20(4), 377-380.
Hsu, Y.-C., & Schwen, T.M. (2003). The effects of structural cues from multiple metaphors on computer users' information search performance. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(1), 39-55.
Task type: Finding information in one hypertext node
Task type definition: Not further defined
Tasks:
1 By the 1880s, when the mills in the South were earning their investors from 30% to 75% profit, the superintendents were still paying less money to mill workers who were 1218 years of age. How much did these children get paid per hour?
Task type: Finding information in two different notes
Task type definition: Not further defined
Tasks:
1 US railroads received support from federal, state, and local governments to meet their start-up costs and to carry on their extensive operations. Briefly explain two other ways the railroads raised money.
2 Initially, female collegiate education reinforced the prevailing concepts of femininity and prepared women for marriage, motherhood, and Christian service. One early college for women was Mount Holyoke. Name three other womens colleges founded in the 19th century.
Hook, K. (1997). Evaluating the utility and usability of an adaptive hypermedia system. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 179-186.
Task type: Tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Find an explanation of the concept information element. Find the hotword in some description of an object (e.g. ROM) under the heading Descriptions of information elements. Once you have found the explanation, answer the following questions: Was the information good and relevant? Did it add anything to your understanding of the concept? How much sense could you make of the explanation? Was anything missing from the explanation? Other comments?
2 Wherein subD does object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design happen and what is the difference between the two? Write down the process-name(s) and a keyword or two about the difference.
3 Imagine that your project has completed the FSAD phase and you are now approaching the phase where you are supposed to do object-oriented analysis. Your project manager has asked you to compile some information to be used as a basis for deciding how to plan the project from now on. As usual you are under stress and only want to do what your project requires and no more. Find out what you must do in subD:iom and write down the headers under which you found relevant information.
4 Find an explanation of what an object is. Go to the object IOM and look under Basic introduction or summary. Choose the hotword Object type and then choose the hotword Object (in the explanation of Object type). Once you found the explanation, answer the following questions: Was the information good and relevant? Did it add anything to your understanding of the concept? How much sense could you make out of the explanation? Was anything missing from the explanation? Other comments?
5 Imagine that your project has completed the FSAD phase and you are now approaching the phase where you are supposed to do object-oriented modelling. Your project manager has asked you to compile some information to be used as a basis for deciding how to plan the project from now. As usual you are under stress and do only want to do what your project requires and no more. Find out what you must do in subD:rom and write down the headers under which you found relevant information.
Hersh, W.R., & Hickam, D.H. (1992). A comparison of two methods for indexing and retrieval from a full-text medical database. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 221-230.
Task type: Queries
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 How is the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension made?
2 What are the complications of steroid therapy?
3 What are some iatrogenic complications that can occur to liver failure patients when they are hospitalized?
4 What are the risk factors for cerebrovascular disease?
5 What is the optimal chemotherapy for non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung and what is its efficacy?
6 What are the clinical uses for interferon?
7 What is the treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia?
8 What are the standard treatment regimens for tuberculosis?
9 What is the pharmacology of primidone?
10 Does treatment of hypercholesterolemia lower the risk of myocardial infarction?
Hersh, W.R., Elliot, D.L., Hickam, D.H., Wolf, S.L., Molnar, A., & Leichtenstien, C. (1995). Toward new measures of information retrieval evaluation. Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 164-170.
Task type: Short-answer questions
Task type definition: "A test "at the senior medical student level of difficulty... The test questions were designed to have specific answers in the database." (p.166)
Tasks:
1 A 60-year-old man from a poor socioeconomic environment is admitted with an acute illness characterized by mental disturbances, a sixth nerve palsy, and ataxia of gait. What specific emergency treatment is needed?
2 What percent of patients with Type II diabetes respond to oral hypoglycemic agents as their initial drug treatment?
3 Mr. Rogers is seen in the Bend, OR Emergency Room. He states that he was bitten by a spider. He is relatively certain that it was a black widow. What are the expected initial symptoms of the bite?
4 What organism is most commonly found in anaerobic osteomyelitis?
5 You are seeing a diabetic man with severe gastropariesis. He has not improved on oral metoclopramide (Reglan) and was sent to you for additional treatment. What would you recommend?
6 What electrocardiographic feature distinguishes Prinzmetals angina from more typical angina pectoris?
7 Mrs. Towel. an 80-year-old woman on no medication, is seen for light-headedness and found to have a heart rate of 36 and third degree heart block. What is the most likely etiology of her heart block?
8 A strongly positive antibody test to which antigen is most typical of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease?
9 What is the most common cause of sudden death among young athletes?
10 How is the organism which causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever transmitted?
Hersh, W., Turpin, A., Price, S., Kraemer, D., Olson, D., Chan, B., & Sacherek, L. (2001). Challenging conventional assumptions of automated information retrieval with real users: Boolean searching and batch retrieval evaluations. Information Processing & Management, 37(3), 383-402.
Drori, O. (2000). The benefits of displaying additional internal document information on textual database search result lists. In Borbinha, J., & Baker, T. (eds.), Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (4th European Conference, ECDL 2000, Proceedings). Springer, 69-82
Heo, M., & Hirtle, S.C. (2001). An empirical comparison of visualization tools to assist information retrieval on the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 52(8), 666-675.
Task type: Tool-strong questions
Task type definition: Questions for which the visualization tool would be useful; includes both questions requiring users' understandability of the Web space and questions requiring comparisons on the Web pages
Tasks:
1 Name any two faculty members who have publications accessible online.
2 How many abstracts are available from the CIRCLEs seminar page in the list of upcoming events?
3 Which faculty node has the most Web pages linked from it?
4 How many faculty members in the Intelligent Systems Program (ISP) have Web pages?
5 Are there more ISP seminars or ISP colloquiums listed?
6 For how many terms are online course schedules provided?
7 Which link in the ISP homepage contains information about special student status?
8 How many research associates in the Intelligent Systems Program have Web pages?
Task type: Tool-neutral questions
Task type definition: Questions for which the visualization tool might not have much impact
Tasks:
1 How often is the Introduction to Clinical Multimedia and the Internet (ISSP 2040) class offered?
2 How many journal articles did Dr. Kurt VanLehn publish in 1998?
3 When was the last time that the Intelligent Systems Research Seminar (ISSP 2050) class was offered?
4 Name the ISSP 2040 textbook title authored by Grosky, Jain, and Mehrotra?
5 How many classes did Dr. Druzdzel teach in Spring 1999?
6 What are the office hours of Dr. Pollack for the Advanced Topics in Artificial Intelligence (ISSP 3565) class?
7 What is the fax number of Dr. Druzdzel?
8 How many people acquired their Ph.D. degrees under Dr. Daleys mentorship?
9 Who is the teaching assistant in the Evaluation Methods in Medical Informatics (ISSP 2060) class in Spring 1999 (99-2)?
10 Who do you have to contact for information about Medical Informatics track admission?
11 What is the ISSP course number of the Introduction to Medical Informatics class?
12 What is the phone number of Dr. VanLehns secretary?
13 Which ISSP course is the prerequisite for the Machine Learning and Communication class (ISSP 2170)?
14 What is the ISP Department code for the GRE?
15 Name one of Dr. VanLehns current projects.
16 Who is the director of the Intelligent Systems Program?
17 Name one of the prerequisites of the Human Information Processing (ISSP 2220) class?
18 Name one of the research interests of Dr. Lowe.
19 In addition to 901 CL, where else does research associate Ron Rymon have an office?
20 When is the deadline for the Mellon Fellowship application? (Specify the date)
21 Name any two academic departments with which Dr. Moore is associated.
22 How many core classes are required for MS and Ph.D. degrees?
23 For the special student status application, which office do people have to contact?
24 Who teaches the Machine Learning and Communication (ISSP 2170) class in the Spring 1999 (99-2)?
Harper, D.J., & Kelly, D. (2006). Contextual relevance feedback. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Information Interaction in Context, 129-137.
Task type: Aspectual topics, modified from TREC-8
Task type definition: "The new topics asked subjects to find documents covering as many aspects as possible (comprehensiveness) and also as many documents as possible relating to each aspect (exhaustiveness)... we further added text describing an information seeking scenario by combining the description and instance fields. (p.131)
Tasks:
1 Number 408i; Title: topical storms Imagine that you are enrolled in an environmental sciences course and you are interested in learning more about tropical storms (hurricanes and typhoons). It seems that tropical storms are becoming more destructive and you decide to investigate past storms. Your instructor asks you to prepare a short, 5-page paper investigating past tropical storms. Your instructor asks you to use historical newspaper articles as your sources of information and to collect comprehensive information on different tropical storms and impacts of each storm. Specifically, your goal is to identify different tropical storms that have caused property damage and/or loss of life, and to find as much information as possible about each storm.
2 Number 428i, declining birth rate
3 Number 431i, robotic technology
4 Number 438i, tourism, increase
5 Number 446i, tourist, violence
Golovchinsky, G. (1997). Queries? Links? Is there a difference? Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 407-414.
Gauch, S., & Smith, J.B. (1991). Search improvement via automatic query reformulation. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9(3), 249-280.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Not specified
Tasks:
1 What are some sources of error in floating point arithmetic? (p.270)
2 How is computer architecture distinguished from the other computer design domains? (p.270)
3 What are some upward pressures on the level of a machine language? (p.270)
4 Fixed length multiplication produces a double length result. How have different machines handled this? (p.270)
5 How are interrupts handled? Do not consider techniques to disable them. (p.270)
6 1/0 devices have moving parts. What is the effect of this motion on the architecture of computers? (p.270)
7 What are some design principles that lead to clean architectures? Do not consider the economic advantages of a quality design. (p.270)
8 What techniques have been used to reduce bit traffic? (p.270)
9 How are control structures implemented? (p.270)
10 What role does buffering play in 1/0 transfers? (p.270)
11 Fragmentation of memory is one problem of using a segmentation scheme. How is paging used to fix this? (p.270)
12 Discuss the two fundamentally different ways to formally specify an architecture. (p.270)
13 What are the effects of having two zeros, as in the sign magnitude representation of fixed point numbers? (p.271)
14 What is done to save state upon a procedure call? (p.271)
15 Besides 1/0, where is concurrency practiced in the implementation? (p.271)
Fraser, L., & Locatis, C. (2001). Effects of link annotations on search performance in layered and unlayered hierarchically organized information spaces. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 52(14), 1255-1261.
Task type: Easy queries
Task type definition: "those queries having a word in them corresponding to a word found only in a single link. These queries had the shortest search times." (p.1258)
Task type: Queries of medium difficulty
Task type definition: "queries that had a word in them corresponding with a word occurring in multiple links. These queries had the next shortest search times." (p.1258)
Task type: Difficult queries
Task type definition: "queries that had synonyms to link wording. Although their search times were long, subjects were able to answer them." (p.1258)
Finkelstein, L., Gabrilovich, E., Matias, Y., Rivlin, E., Solan, Z., Wolfman, G., & Ruppin, E. (2002). Placing search in context: The concept revisited. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 20(1), 116-131.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Not specified
Tasks:
1 "Each subject was presented with three short texts and was asked to find (in three separate stages of the test) information relevant to the text... The texts were composed of a number of short paragraphs (about four to seven lines long), each focused on a specific topic selected from the Encarta Encyclopedia... The subjects were asked to search for relevant information using one, two and three keywords." (p.126)
Egan, D.E., Lesk, M.E., Ketchum, R.D., Lochbaum, C.C., Remde, J.R., Littman, M., & Landauer, T.K. (1991). Hypertext for the electronic library? CORE sample results. Proceedings of the Third Annual ACM Conference on Hypertext, 299-312.
Task type: Browsing task
Task type definition: "meant to simulate browsing recent journals to keep current in certain topics" (p.305)
Tasks:
1 "In the experiment, subjects browse an individual JACS, 1988 issue (approximately 100 articles) with a list of eight topics in hand. The topics serve as a controlled interest profile and were generated by the subject matter experts. Four of the eight topics were known to be dealt with substantively by one or more articles in a particular issue, and four were believed not to be dealt with substantively by any article. Subjects browse an issue and if they find an article that deals substantively with one of the topics on the list, they jot down the beginning page number of the article. When they have completed browsing an issue, subjects are given the second part of the task, which is designed to measure how much information they may have learned incidentally about other topics not included on the first list." (p.305)
Task type: Citation task
Task type definition: "meant to simulate a situation in which a researcher has a very specific question whose answer is contained in a known reference." (p.305)
Tasks:
1 "Subjects look up the reference--either in the printed journals or one of the electronic systems--and read the target article to find the answer." (p.305)
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: "essentially the same as the Citation Task, except that the subject is given only the question and not the citation" (p.305)
Task type: Essay task
Task type definition: "simulates having to write an introductory paragraph to a research paper that summarizes the recent work done on a topic" (p.306)
Tasks:
1 "For this task, subjects are given a topic that is dealt with by several articles in JACS, 1988. They have to find the sources and write an essay summarizing the information and citing the references they found." (p.306)
Task type: Analogous transformations
Task type definition: "When working on such a problem, the chemist will search for a transformation that takes a known substance C into another known substance D, where C is related to A, and D is related to B." (p.306)
Tasks:
1 "The problem statement consists of a pictorial presentation of a proposed transformation, and chemists search for known chemical reactions involving structures that appear similar to those proposed." (p.306)
Dimitroff, A., Wolfram, D., & Volz, A. (1996). Affective response and retrieval performance: Analysis of contributing factors. Library & Information Science Research, 18(2), 121-132.
Task type: Known item search
Task type definition: Not specified
Task type: Specific keyword search
Task type definition: Not specified
Task type: Descriptor search
Task type definition: Not specified
Task type: General subject search
Task type definition: Not specified
Ding, R., & Ma, F. (2013). Assessment of university student web searching competency by a task-based online test: A case study at Wuhan University, China. The Electronic Library, 31(3), 359-375.
Task type: Simple task
Task type definition: Low difficulty; A factual task with simple well-defined information needs: using search engines (e.g., Baidu and Google) to get hypertext information shown in Chinese language by preliminary search strategies (e.g., inputting short keywords). This type of task has easy information browse and evaluation steps, with two to four total search paths. (p.363)
Tasks:
1 Task situation: You are writing an introduction about the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Indicative request: NSF was created in which year? A. 1949 B. 1950 C. 1954 D. 1961 (p.364)
Task type: Basic task
Task type definition: Medium difficulty; A factual task or an intellectual task with well-defined information needs: (1) using academic databases to search relevant papers by basic search strategies, as in searching titles and subjects; or (2) using a specific web site or search engines to search images, videos, or audio information by using basic search strategies. This type of task has comparatively complex information scan and evaluation steps, with five to eight total search paths. (p.363)
Tasks:
1 Task situation: One day on the road, you took pictures of girls from an ethnic group. Indicative request: Given the photos below [sample in article], you are curious about which ethnic group the girls belong to. Please write down the name of that ethnic group. (p.364)
Task type: Difficult task
Task type definition: High difficulty; A factual task or an intellectual task with ill-defined information needs: (1) searching sophisticated foreign academic databases to create academic products or make solutions via advanced search strategies, such as using operators; or (2) using virtualization tools (like Google Maps) to solve complex daily- life problems, requiring multifaceted information browse and evaluation steps, with more than eight total search path. (p.363)
Tasks:
1 Task situation: Information searching behavior can be understood as information seeking behavior and information retrieval behavior. Indicative request: Your teacher asked you to find relevant English papers on the topic of "the relations or influence between information task and information searching behavior". Please use the Science Direct database (http://www.sciencedirect.com/) to make a paper list containing three of the most important and relevant English papers. (p.365)
2 Task situation: The US city Las Vegas is the world's most famous gambling entertainment center. On the Las Vegas Strip ("the Strip" or "Las Vegas Boulevard"), there are many luxurious hotels. These hotels are important tourist attractions. for example, the Bellagio has splendid musical foundation and Caesars Palace has a beautiful man-made sky dome. Indicative request: Your company is organizing a tour to Las Vegas, and you re assigned to reserve a hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. The company staff hold three different opinions on target tourist attractions that involve three different hotels. One group wants to watch the US big Broadway Show, the second group wishes to take a boat on the Venice River, and others would like to enjoy the Volcano Show. First, please write down their names. Since the tourist schedule is tight, you need to reserve only one hotel from these three in order to guarantee that the total travelling distance of the three group's staff to their target attractions is shortest. (p.365)
Dennis, S., Bruza, P., & McArthur, R. (2002). Web searching: A process-oriented experimental study of three interactive search paradigms. Journal of the American society for Information Science & Technology, 53(2), 120-133.
Task type: Internet queries
Task type definition: "Generated to be a broad brushstroke of interesting Internet queries" (p.124)
Tasks:
1 Find pages listing jokes referring to Monica Lewinsky.
2 You are planning to move to Florida. Find pages listing jobs in the Florida area.
3 Find pages containing womens wave surfing competition results over the last 2 years.
4 Find pages about dyslexia.
5 Find pages that discuss clothing sweatshops.
6 Find pages that describe current or planned explorations or scientific investigations of Antarctica.
7 You own a personal computer that runs Windows 95. Find pages describing software that will test if it is Y2K compliant.
8 Find pages from which you can buy a pair of running shoes (online or at an address provided by the page).
9 Find pages that inform you which drugs are used to treat depression.
10 Find pages that discuss the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.
11 Find pages that discuss in vitro fertilization.
12 Are there any reliable or consistent predictors of mutual fund performance?
13 Find recipes for different varieties of carrot cake.
14 Find prices of Toshiba notebook computers.
15 You want to go skiing in Europe. Find pages describing a package holiday.
16 Find pages that discuss the concerns of the United States government regarding the export of encryption technology.
17 What makes Deep Blue capable of beating a human chess player?
18 Find pages that provide information regarding traveling in India.
Task type: Hard queries
Task type definition: "Queries taken from the TREC-8 collection (hard queries)" (p.127)
Tasks:
1 Identify instances of attacks on humans by Africanized (killer) bees. Relevant documents must cite a specific instance of a human attacked by killer bees. Documents that note migration patterns or report attacks on other animals are not relevant unless they also cite an attack on a human.
2 Find accounts of selfless, heroic acts by individuals or small groups for the benefit of others or a cause. Relevant documents will contain a description of specific acts. General statements concerning heroic acts are not relevant.
3 What counterfeiting of money is being done in modern times? Relevant documents must cite actual instances of counterfeiting. Anticounterfeiting measures by themselves are not relevant.
4 Find information on shipwreck salvaging: the recovery or attempted recovery of treasure from sunken ships. A relevant document will provide information on the actual location and recovery of treasure; on the technology that makes possible the discovery, location, and investigation of wreckages that contain or are suspected of containing treasure; or on the disposition of the recovered treasure.
5 In what ways have quilts been used to generate income? Documents mentioning quilting books, quilting classes, quilted objects, and museum exhibits of quilts are all relevant. Documents that discuss AIDS quilts are irrelevant, unless there is specific mention that the quilts are being used for fundraising.
6 Do any countries other than the United States and China have declining birth rates? To be relevant, a document will name a country other than the United States and China in which the birth rate fell from the previous year. The decline need not have occurred in more than 1 preceding year.
7 Find ways of measuring creativity. Relevant items include definitions of creativity, descriptions of characteristics associated with creativity, and factors linked to creativity.
8 What is the status of the Three Gorges project? A relevant document will provide the projected date of completion of the project, its estimated cost, or the estimated electrical output of the finished project. Discussions of the social, political, or ecological impact of the project are not relevant.
9 What is the impact of poaching on the worlds various wildlife preserves? A relevant document must discuss poaching in wildlife preserves, not in the wild itself. Also deemed relevant is evidence of preventive measures being taken by local authorities.
10 What are new methods of producing steel? Relevant documents will discuss the processes adapted by entrepreneurs who have organized so-called minimills, and are producing steel by methods that differ from the old furnace method of production. Documents that identify the new companies, the problems they have encountered, and/or their successes or failures in the national and international markets are also relevant.
11 What legal actions have resulted from the destruction of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21, 1988? Documents describing any charges, claims, or fines presented to or imposed by any court or tribunal are relevant, but documents that discuss charges made in diplomatic jousting are not relevant.
12 Find information on the use of dogs worldwide for law enforcement purposes. Relevant items include specific information on the use of dogs during an operation. Training of dogs and their handlers are also relevant.
Dempsey, B.J., Vreeland, R.C., Sumner, R.G., Jr., & Yang, K. (2000). Design and empirical evaluation of search software for legal professionals on the WWW. Information Processing & Management, 36(2), 253-273.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 A-1 Find Professor Ethan Katsh's article entitled "Cybertime, Cyberspace, and Cyberlaw" in the Journal of Online Law. (p.271)
2 A-2 Find an opinion issued by any US Court of Appeal which mentions peyote. (p.271)
3 B-1 Find President Clinton's April 1995 Executive Order pertaining to classied national security information. (p.271)
4 B-2 Find a Florida Supreme Court case called State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company and State Farm Fire and Casualty Company vs Kunbok Lee and Gisun Lee. (p.271)
5 C-1 Find the text of the case issued by the North Carolina Supreme Court in the case of State vs Benjamin Edward Peterson. (p.271)
6 C-2 Find the New York Legislature bill that establishes a legal denition of computer network and makes harassment via computer a crime. (p.271)
Das Neves, F.A., & Fox, E.A. (2000). A study of user behavior in an immersive virtual environment for digital libraries. Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, 103-111.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Subjects were "asked to identify the best book they could find in the library about that [given] topic". (p.106)
Tasks:
1 You are interested in finding a book discussing one or more topics related to ethics in business. You search for "ethics business".
Dalrymple, P.W. (1990). Retrieval by reformulation in two library catalogs: Toward a cognitive model of searching behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(4), 272-281.
Task type: Subject searches
Task type definition: Not defined
Task type: Known-item questions
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "Find a book with a title 'something like 30 years of baseball'." (p.279)
Carpineto, C., & Romano, G. (1996). A lattice conceptual clustering system and its application to browsing retrieval. Machine Learning, 24(2), 95-122.
Task type: Browsing retrieval tasks
Task type definition: Not specified
Tasks:
1 Rule induction in artificial intelligence systems. (p.117)
2 Applications of speech recognition to telecommunications environments. (p.117)
3 Effect of the advances in computer technology and artificial intelligence on information services. (p.119)
4 Heuristic search: methods and applications, (p.119)
5 Role played by artificial intelligence in advancing the field of robotics. (p.119)
6 Criteria for the objective evaluation of knowledge-based systems. (p.119)
7 Picture processing systems not based on neural network techniques. (p.119)
8 Effectiveness of inclusion of natural language processing techniques in information retrieval interfaces. (p.119)
9 Methods for mapping 3D objects on 2D representations. (p.119)
10 State of the art of automatic medical diagnosis. (p.119)
11 Parsers for languages other than English. (p.119)
12 Expert systems for designing or monitoring nuclear plants. (p.119)
13 Automated construction of expert systems through machine learning techniques. (p.119)
14 Artificial intelligence programming languages other than Lisp or Prolog. (p.119)
15 Applications of machine learning technology to real world problems. (p.119)
16 Image segmentation in picture analysis. (p.119)
17 Integrated methods for combining symbolic and neural processing. (p.119)
18 The cost and value of expert systems. (p.119)
19 Unsupervised learning: methods and research issues. (p.119)
20 Use of parallelism to improve efficiency of artificial intelligence languages or algorithms. (p.119)
Allan, J., Leuski, A., Swan, R., & Byrd, D. (2001). Evaluating combinations of ranked lists and visualizations of inter-document similarity. Information Processing & Management, 37, 435-458.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Not specified
Qu, P., Liu, C., & Lai, M. (2010). The effect of task type and topic familiarity on information search behaviors. In Proceeding of the third symposium on information interaction in context. (371-376). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Fact Finding
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "CPI (CPI). Search for the connotation and denotation of CPI and its relation with the social economy." (p.372)
2 "Dish: Angciyu and Choudayuan (DISH). This is a dish name and it is said to be very delicious. Find where it comes from, what it consists of and how it is cooked." (p.372)
Task type: Hierarchical Information Gathering
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Bird Flu (FLU). You are in a city where the bird flu is going to break out at present. Your task is to find the relevant information related to prevention, sterilization, and other attentions in such surroundings." (p.371)
2 "Allergic Rhinitis (NOSE). You catch the allergic rhinitis although youve not suffered from it before. Your task is to find information about the pathogenesis, treatment and other attentions about the disease." (p.372)
Task type: Parallel Information Gathering
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Nuclear Energy and Environment Protection (ENV). Find out how the two items are related and how the government administrates the two respectively." (p.372).
Poddar, A., & Ruthven, I. (2010). The emotional impact of search tasks. In Proceeding of the third symposium on information interaction in context. (35-44). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Fact-Finding
Task type definition: "The first search task (fact finding) asked participants to find a single, factual answer... Although the answer would be a single fact... there might be several ways of finding the information and the answer could vary according to the information uncovered during searching." (p.37)
Tasks:
1 "the cheapest method of travelling from Luton airport to the centre of London" (p.37)
Task type: Complex Criteria
Task type definition: "The second search task (complex criteria) also asked participants to find a single, factual answer... but contained specific criteria, such as date, price, travel, that had to be met to satisfy the answer. In this search topic there may be several answers fitting the criteria but each possible answer has to be assessed against the range of criteria given in the task." (37-38)
Tasks:
1 "a location for a social event... This task was tailored towards the two groups; office workers were given an office party as a social event, students were asked to help organise a graduation celebration." (37-38)
Task type: Exploratory Learning
Task type definition: "The final search task (exploratory learning)... gave less information to the participants aside from searching on time management strategies and finding a seminar locally. The final answer was to find a time management seminar but the task required the participants to explore what information was available and learning something about possible time management strategies in order to evaluate the seminars." (p.38)
Tasks:
1 "asked participants to search for time management seminars. This task description gave less information to the participants aside from searching on time management strategies and finding a seminar locally. The final answer was to find a time management seminar but the task required the participants to explore what information was available and learning something about possible time management strategies in order to evaluate the seminars." (p.38)
Pharo, N., & Nordlie, R. (2012). Examining the effect of task stage and topic knowledge on searcher interaction with a "digital bookstore".In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium (4-11). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Explorative Task
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "You are at an early stage of working on an assignment, and have decided to start exploring the literature of your topic. Your initial idea has led to one of the following three research needs: 1. Find trustworthy books discussing the conspiracy theories which developed after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York. 2. Find controversial books discussing the climate change and whether it is man-made or not. 3. Find highly acclaimed novels that treat issues related to racial discrimination." (p.7)
Task type: Data Gathering
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "You are in a data gathering stage of an assignment and need to collect a series of books for further analysis. This has led to one of the following three research needs: 4. Find novels that won the Nobel Prize during the 1990's. 5. Find bestseller crime novels by female authors. 6. Find biographies on athletes active in the 1990's." (p.7)
Task type: Semi Self-Selected
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "7. Try to find books about a specific topic or of a certain type, but do not look for a specific title you already know." (p.7)
Liu, J., Cole, M., Liu, C., Bierig, R., Gwizdka, J., Belkin, N., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. (2010). Search behaviors in different task types. In Proceedings of the 10th annual joint conference on digital libraries (69-78.) New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Background Information Collection
Task type definition: "BIC is a Mixed Product, because identifying important newspapers is intellectual, and finding documents on the topic is factual. It is at the Document Level because whole stories are judged; it has the Specific Goal of finding documents on a well- defined topic; it has High Objective Complexity because of the number of sources and activities that need to be consulted/done." (p.72)
Tasks:
1 "You are a journalist at the New York Times, working with several others on a story about whether and how changes in US visa laws after 9/11 have reduced enrollment of international students at universities in the US. You are supposed to gather background information on the topic, specifically, to find what has already been written on this topic. Your Task: Please find and save all the stories and related materials that have already been published in the last two years in the New York Times on this topic, and also in five other important newspapers, either US or foreign." (p.71-72)
Task type: Copy Editing
Task type definition: "CPE is a Factual Product, because facts have to be identified; it is at the Segment Level, because items within a document need to be found; it has the Specific Goal of confirming facts; it has Low Objective Complexity because only three facts need to be confirmed." (p.72)
Tasks:
1 "Your assignment: Y ou are a copy editor at a newspaper and you have only 20 minutes to check the accuracy of the three underlined statements in the excerpt of a piece of news story below. New South Korean President Lee Myung-bak takes office Lee Myung-bak is the 10th man to serve as South Koreas president and the first to come from a business background. He won a landslide victory in last Decembers election. He pledged to make economy his top priority during the campaign. Lee promised to achieve 7% annual economic growth, double the countrys per capita income to US$4,000 over a decade and lift the country to one of the topic seven economies in the world. Lee, 66, also called for a stronger alliance with top ally Washington and implored North Korea to forgo its nuclear ambitions and open up to the outside world, promising a better future for the impoverished nation. Lee said he would launch massive investment and aid projects in the North to increase its per captia income to US$3,000 within a decade once North Korea abandons its nuclear program and chooses the path to openness. Your Task: Please find and save an authoritative page that either confirms or disconfirms each statement." (p.72)
Task type: Interview Preparation
Task type definition: "INT is a Mixed Product, because defining expertise is intellectual, and contact information is a fact; it is at the Document Level, because expertise is determined by a whole page; Goal Quality is Mixed, because determining expertise is amorphous but contact information is specific; it has Low Objective Complexity because only two people need to be found." (p.72)
Tasks:
1 "Your assignment: Your assignment editor asks you to write a news story about whether state budget cuts in New Jersey are affecting financial aid for college and university students. Your Task: Please find the names of two people with appropriate expertise that you are going to interview for this story and save just the pages or sources that describe their expertise and how to contact them." (p.72)
Task type: Advanced Obituary
Task type definition: "OBI is a Factual Product, because facts about the person are needed; it is at the Document Level because entire documents need to be examined; Goal Quality is Amorphous because all the information is undefined; it has High Objective Complexity because many facts need to be found." (p.72)
Tasks:
1 "Your assignment: Many newspapers commonly write obituaries of important people years in advance, before they die, and in this assignment, you are asked to write an advance obituary for a famous person. Your Task: Please collect and save all the information you will need to write an advance obituary of the artist Trevor Malcolm Weeks." (p.72)
Liu, J., Gwizdka, J., Liu, C., Belkin, N. (2010). Predicting Task Difficulty for Different Task Types. In Proceedings of the 73rd ASIS&T Annual Meeting on Navigating Streams in an Information Ecosystem. New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Fact-Finding, Single
Task type definition: Fact-finding tasks (FF tasks asked users to locate some short, specific information) that ask the user to locate only a single piece of information
Tasks:
1 "Everybody talks these days about global warming. By how many degrees (Celsius or Fahrenheit) is the temperature predicted to rise by the end of the XXI century?"
Task type: Fact-Finding, Multiple
Task type definition: Fact-finding tasks (FF tasks asked users to locate some short, specific information) that ask the user to locate multiple pieces of information
Tasks:
1 "A friend has just sent an email from an Internet caf in the southern USA where she is on a hiking trip. She tells you that she has just stepped into an anthill of small red ants and has a large number of painful bites on her leg. She wants to know what species of ants they are likely to be, how dangerous they are and what she can do about the bites. What will you tell her?"
Task type: Information gathering, Multiple
Task type definition: Information gathering tasks (which involve the collection of information for which there is no one specific answer) that ask the user to locate multiple pieces of information.
Tasks:
1 "You recently heard about the book "Fast Food Nation," and it has really influenced the way you think about your diet. You note in particular the amount and types of food additives contained in the things that you eat every day. Now you want to understand which food additives pose a risk to your physical health, and are likely to be listed on grocery store labels."
Liu, Y. (2010). On the potential search effectiveness of MeSH (medical subject headings) terms. In Proceeding of the third symposium on information interaction in context. (225-234) New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Search
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "ID: 39 Title: Hypertension Need: Identify genes as potential genetic risk factors candidates for causing hypertension. Context: A relevant document is one which discusses genes that could be considered as candidates to test in a randomized controlled trial which studies the genetic risk factors for stroke." (p.228)
Fruend, L. & Berzowska, J. (2010) The Goldilocks Effect: Task-Centred Assessments of E-Government Information. In Proceedings of the 73rd ASIS&T Annual Meeting on Navigating Streams in an Information Ecosystem. New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Fact-Finding
Task type definition: "Seeking information with the goal of finding specific factual information to answer a well-specified question or fill a known gap in knowledge" (p.3)
Tasks:
1 "As a volunteer at a local museum, you have been asked to help prepare a public school workshop on Canadian weather disasters. You remember that Hurricane Juan hit Nova Scotia a few years ago, and you decide to prepare an information sheet for the students. Search for factual information about Hurricane Juan including where and when it hit and how much damage it caused." (p.10)
Task type: Deciding
Task type definition: "Seeking information with the goal of identifying and comparing alternatives in order to determine a course of action" (p.3)
Tasks:
1 "Although its generally understood that tap water is safe to drink throughout most of Canada, youve begun wondering whether this is a valid assumption. Youre considering whether or not to start purchasing bottled water to drink, but need more information about how water quality is assessed, and what the potential risks of drinking tap water might be before you decide. Search for information to help you make this decision." (p.10)
Task type: Doing
Task type definition: "Seeking information with the goal of accomplishing some procedural task by identifying the steps to take and the issues involved" (p.3)
Tasks:
1 "An elderly uncle has had a stroke and is now confined to a wheelchair. He and your aunt want to continue to live in their own home, but would like to do some minor renovations to make it wheelchair accessible as well as safer and more convenient for them as they grow older. They have asked you to help them with the project. Search for information to guide you in the process of adapting the home to their needs." (p.10)
Task type: Learning
Task type definition: "Seeking information with the goal of becoming familiar with an unfamiliar topic; gaining a general orientation and an understanding of key concepts" (p.3)
Tasks:
1 "Youve heard that the upcoming year will be an El Nia year. Youve heard El Nia and El Nio mentioned many times on television and radio weather reports over the years, but youve never been exactly sure of what these terms mean. You want to learn more about them and how they impact weather patterns in different regions across Canada. Search for information to help you learn about these weather phenomena." (p.10)
Task type: Problem-Solving
Task type definition: "Seeking information with the goal of identifying possible courses of action that would result in correcting a malfunction or overcoming some obstacle, in particular when the cause of the problem is unknown." (p.3)
Tasks:
1 "You live outside of the city and there is a small stream that runs through the back of your property. In the past, the stream has always run clear and supported an active community of minnows, frogs and other creatures. Over the past few months, you have noticed the water becoming increasingly murky and full of algae and you are concerned that the stream has become polluted. Search for information that would help you better understand and deal with this problem." (p.10)
Kinley, K., & Tjondronegoro, D. (2010). User-web interactions: How wholistic/analytic web users search the web? In Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group of Australia on computer-human interaction (344-347). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "You with your two friends are planning a trek of one week in Solukhumbu in Nepal. The trekking will occur next month. You are told that tourists trekking in the place may suffer high-altitude illness. You decide that you should know more about the place; as well as symptoms, seriousness and prevention of high-altitude sickness." (p.345)
Gwizdka, J. (2009). What a difference a tag cloud makes: Effects of tasks and cognitive abilities on search results interface use. Information Research: An International Electronic Journal, 14(4)
Task type: Fact-finding
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Scenario: Your friend is a vegetarian and also enjoys beer. In particular, he likes the British ales. He will be visiting London the next week and has asked you to find a London pub with a vegetarian cuisine. He is travelling now and does not have access to the Internet. You will need to send a text message to him with the information that you find. Your task: Please find a pub in London where vegetarian dishes are served. When you are done, please text him the name of one such pub. (Initial query: london pub)" (p.24)
2 "Scenario: Your relative is coming back from India. She will have a one night stopover at Heathrow airport near London. But she forgot to make hotel arrangements earlier and has asked you to find a hotel is close to Heathrow. You will need to send her a text message what you find to his cell phone. Your task: Please find a hotel located around the Heathrow airport. When you are done, please text her the name of this hotel. (Initial query: london hotel )" (p.25)
Task type: Information gathering
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Scenario: Your high school friend has recently got married. He and his bride are travelling through European cities (Venice, Vienna and Paris). Because of the airport staff strike in Paris they have unexpectedly re-routed to London. They called you and asked for information about museums where they can see collections of interest to them. You know they are interested in anthropology, contemporary paintings and photography. You will search on the Internet and send them your recommendations by texting the names of three museums. Your task: Please find three museums in London that will allow them to see such collections. When you are done, please text him the names of the museums you found. (Initial query: london museums)" (p.24-25)
2 "Scenario: Your significant other has asked you for information about some stores in London. She or he will be travelling to London next week and wants to get some LPs, books and t-shirts. You need to find information on where to buy British LPs (a.k.a. vinyl records), design books and cool t-shirts. You will search on the Internet and send your recommendations by texting the names of three stores. Your task: Please find the three stores in London. When you are done, please text him the names of the stores you found. (Initial query: london shopping)" (p.25)
Liu, C., Gwizdka, J., Liu, J., Xu, T., & Belkin, N. (2010). Analysis and Evaluation of Query Reformulations in Different Task Types. In Proc. the American Society for Information Science and Technology. New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Simple (fact-finding)
Task type definition: "Simple (S), where the information need is satisfied by a single, independent piece of information (by definition, simple task is of the fact finding type)"
Tasks:
1 "You love history and, in particular, you are interested in the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights). You have read about their period of power, and now you want to learn more about their decline. What year was the Order defeated in a battle by a Polish-Lithuanian army?"
Task type: Hierarchical
Task type definition: "Hierarchical (H), where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple characteristics of a single concept; this is a depth search, where a single topic is explored"
Tasks:
1 "You recently heard about the book "Fast Food Nation," and it has really influenced the way you think about your diet. You note in particular the amount and types of food additives contained in the things that you eat every day. Now you want to understand which food additives pose a risk to your physical health, and are likely to be listed on grocery store labels."
Task type: Parallel
Task type definition: "Parallel (P), where the information need is satisfied by finding multiple concepts that exist at the same level in a conceptual hierarchy; this is a breadth search."
Tasks:
1 "Friends are planning to build a new house and have heard that using solar energy panels for heating can save a lot of money. Since they do not know anything about home heating and the issues involved, they have asked for your help. You are uncertain as well, and do some research to identify some issues that need to be considered in deciding between more conventional methods of home heating and solar panels."
Kinley, K., Tjondronegoro, D., & Partridge, H. (2010). Web searching interaction model based on user cognitive styles. In Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group of Australia on computer-human interaction. (340-343). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Search Tasks
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1 "Imagine you want to learn about the Web 2.0 platform but have no previous knowledge or experience. Find suitable materials on the Web for people with no experience." (p.341)
2 "You have decided to conduct a research using grounded theory approach. Find relevant information on grounded theory and its benefit in a qualitative research." (p.341)
3 "Answer the following question as quickly as possible. A technician is badly injured while performing her duty in an Australian university. What are the legal implications of this for the university?" (p.341)
Kinley, K., Tjondronegoro, D., Partridge, H., & Edwards, S. (2012). Relationship between the nature of the search task types and query reformulation behaviour. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Australasian Document Computing Symposium (39-46) New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Factual
Task type definition: "The factual task is a fact-finding search task, such as finding three laws on child safety while travelling in vehicles." (p.41)
Tasks:
1 "You have recently moved to Austin, Texas, The U.S., and would like to know the relevant laws passed by the Texas State government regarding child safety while travelling in vehicles. Identify three such rules." (p.41)
Task type: Exploratory
Task type definition: "The exploratory task is more open-ended; there are no specific answers to such task type unlike the factual task" (p.41).
Tasks:
1 "You, with your two friends, are planning a trek for one week in Solukhumbu in Nepal. The trekking will occur next month. You are told that tourists trekking in the place may get high- altitude illness. You decide that you should know more about the place, and the symptoms, seriousness and prevention of high-altitude sickness." (p.41)
Task type: Abstract
Task type definition: "In an abstract task, the information need is abstract for which a concrete, direct solution may not exist. The abstract search task is more open-ended than the exploratory task." (p.41).
Tasks:
1 "You recently heard about the Bermuda Triangle mystery, and you are curious and want to know more about it. So you want to search any relevant information (articles, images and videos) about it and what effect it has on the travellers in the region." (p.41)
Kinley, K., Tjondronegoro, D., Partridge, H., & Edwards, S. (2012). Human-computer interaction: The impact of users' cognitive styles on query reformulation behaviour during web searching. In Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (299-307). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "You, with your two friends, are planning a trek for one week in Solukhumbu in Nepal. The trekking will occur next month. You are told that tourists trekking in the place may get high-altitude illness. You decide that you should know more about the place, and symptoms, seriousness and preventions of high-altitude sickness." (p.301-302)
2 "You have recently moved to Austin, Texas, the US and would like to know the relevant laws passed by the Texas state government regarding child safety while travelling in vehicles. Identify three such rules." (p.302)
3 "You recently heard about the Bermuda Triangle mystery, and you are curious and want to know more about it. So, you want to search any relevant information (articles, images and videos) about it and what effect it has on the travellers in the region" (p.302)
Jansen, M., Bos, W., van der Vet, P., Huibers, T., & Hiemstra, D. (2010). TeddIR: Tangible information retrieval for children. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on interaction design and children (282-285). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Goal-directed tasks
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Find books about soccer" (p.284).
2 "Find books about dogs, but not about soccer" (p.284)
Hoeber, O., & Yang, X. D. (2009). HotMap: Supporting visual exploration of web search results. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,60(1), 90.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "You are a network manager for a small company. You are looking for information on tools, software, or services to assist you in managing your companys communications network (i.e., a data and/or voice network)." (p.101)
2 "You are a software developer working on a new project that requires complex knowledge and information to be stored and maintained. You are looking for information about how to represent this information in your software system." (p.101)
Aula, A., Khan, R., & Guan, Z. (2010). How does search behavior change as search becomes more difficult? In Proceedings of the 28th international conference on human factors in computing systems (35-44) New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Easy filler tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "I was watching the movie "Stand by Me" the other day. I know it is based on a Stephen King story with a different name. What is the name of the story?" (p.37)
2 "My friend had a cool program on his iphone that told him what song was playing when he held the phone to the speaker playing the song. I forgot to ask him but really want to get a copy for my own iPhone. What is the name of this program?" (p.37)
3
4
Task type: Difficult tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "You once heard that the Dave Matthews Band owns a studio in Virginia but you don't know the name of it. The studio is located outside of Charlottesville and it's in the mountains. What is the name of the studio?" (p.37)
2 "I was recently watching footage of one of Prada's fashion shows from a few months ago, where two models fell (and several others stumbled) due to the footwear. Find the names of the models who fell." (p.37)
Zhang, Y. (2012). The impact of task complexity on people's mental models of MedlinePlus. Information Processing & Management, 48(1), 107.
Task type: Simple Task
Task type definition: "A simple task is a well-defined question where it is clear what information is required. The answer to a simple task is located on one page, and little cognitive effort is required to solve the task" (p.109).
Tasks:
1 "Protein is a building block nutrient. Your body uses protein to build tissue, such as white and red blood cells, other cells in the immune system, skin, hair, and muscle. Given the importance of protein in your body, you want to find out how much protein an average person needs each day." (p.110)
Task type: Complex Task
Task type definition: "A complex task is an open-ended question. The desired information is less clear, and the answer to a complex task is often located on multiple pages. High-level cognitive activities, such as information comparing, interpreting, and synthesizing, are required to tackle a complex task." (p.110).
Tasks:
1 "Imagine that your friend recently was diagnosed with asthma and was put on two inhalers. But he thinks it is chronic bronchitis. So he wants to know what the similarities and differences between asthma and chronic bronchitis are. Also, he wants to know various means to treat or soothe asthma, such as medicine, diet, alternative medicines, exercise, etc. You want to help him by finding as much information as possible in MedlinePlus." (p.110)
Xie, I., & Joo, S. (2012). Factors affecting the selection of search tactics: Tasks, knowledge, process, and systems. Information Processing and Management, 48(2), 254-270.
Task type: Specific information searching
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "Id like to look at the conditions of 2 local ski hills." (p.258)
Task type: Known-item searching
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "I want to know if the UW- Milwaukee library has a copy of the book History of Racine and Kenosha Counties from 1879'." (p.258).
Task type: Subject-oriented searching
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 "I want to learn more about both the positive and negative effects that caffeine has on the body." (p.258).
Task type:
Task type definition:
Wilson, M. J., & Wilson, M. L. (2013). A comparison of techniques for measuring sensemaking and learning within participant‐generated summaries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(2), 291-306.
Task type: Sensemaking task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Ebook Readers. Scenario: You are buying a gift for a close family member. They love reading books but storage is becoming an issue. You have decided to look into buying them an ebook reader. How do ebook readers work? How are they different from reading text on a monitor? What are the advantages of ebooks vs. real books? How easy are they to use?" (p.296)
Willson, R., & Given, L. M. (2010). The effect of spelling and retrieval system familiarity on search behavior in online public access catalogs: A mixed methods study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(12), 2461-2476.
Task type: Search task, easy spelling
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "lemming" (p.2466)
2 "civilian" (p.2466)
3 "Bolivia" (p.2466)
4 "Sigmund Freud" (p.2466)
Task type: Search task, difficult spelling
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "ptarmigan" (p.2466)
2 "millennium" (p.2466)
3 "Qatar" (p.2466)
4 "Michel Foucault" (p.2466)
Willoughby, T., Anderson, S. A., Wood, E., Mueller, J., & Ross, C. (2009). Fast searching for information on the internet to use in a learning context: The impact of domain knowledge.Computers & Education, 52(3), 640-648.
Task type: None
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 For the next half-hour I would like you to search the Internet to learn about how human metabolism works. What is the process?" (p.642)
2 "For the next half-hour I would like you to search the Internet to learn about major urban environmental issues that we are currently dealing with, and measures that have been proposed to deal with them. (p.642)
Villa, R., & Jose, J. M. (2012). A study of awareness in multimedia search. Information Processing & Management,48(1), 32.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Find shots of a group including least four people dressed in suits, seated, and with at least one flag" (p.36)
2 "Finds shots with one or more emergency vehicles in motion (e.g., ambulance, police car, fire truck, etc.)" (p.36)
3 "Find shots with one or more people leaving or entering a vehicle" (p.36)
4 "Find shots of a greeting by at least one kiss on the cheek" (p.36)
Vanopstal, K., Stichele, R. V., Laureys, G., & Buysschaert, J. (2012). PubMed searches by Dutch‐speaking nursing students: The impact of language and system experience. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,63(8), 1538-1552.
Task type: Literature search task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "translated: What is the effect of a multifactorial treatment (i.e., a combination of physiotherapy/ exercise/ medication, etc.) on the risk of falling in elderly living in long-term care facilities, such as nursing homes or homes for the aged?" (p.1540)
Turner, N. B. (2011). Librarians do it differently: Comparative usability testing with students and library staff. Journal of Web Librarianship, 5(4), 286-298.
Task type: Known-item
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Locate the book Beloved by Toni Morrison. Is this book available for you to check out of the library?" (p.290)
2 "Find and access the full text of an article from the online journal Nature." (p.291).
Task type: Subject Search
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Locate an electronic journal in the subject of psychology." (p.290)
2 "Find a multi-media item, like a video, for a presentation you are doing on health and the college student." (p.291)
3 "Show me how you might locate first-hand accounts or primary resources (diaries, newspaper articles) by people who worked on the Erie Canal (1840-1860)." (p.291)
Tu, Y., Shih, M., & Tsai, C. (2008). Eighth graders' web searching strategies and outcomes: The role of task types, web experiences and epistemological beliefs. Computers & Education, 51(3), 1142-1153.
Task type: Open-ended
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Among all of the energy resources, what do you think is the better energy resource? Why?" (p.1146)
2
Task type: Close-ended
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "What are the currently used energy resources in Taiwan?" (p.1146)
2 "What are the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy?" (p.1146)
Toms, E., Villa, R., & McCay-Peet, L. (2013). How is a search system used in work task completion? Journal of Information Science, 39(1), 15-25.
Task type: Decision making tasks
Task type definition: "The tasks used were decision-making tasks that required one to make a decision between two options based on a set of criteria" (p.17)
Tasks:
1 "A friend recently got a job that requires him to do a lot of travelling within the province and he is planning to buy a new car for the first time. He either wants to get a Toyota Prius or Ford Focus. Using the information you find in Wikipedia, would you recommend your friend purchase the Prius or Focus? Provide at least three reasons for your selection." (p.17)
2 "A friend recently got a job that requires him to do a lot of travelling within the province and he is planning to buy a new car for the first time. He either wants to get a Toyota Prius or Ford Focus. Using the information you find in Wikipedia, you offer to find the answers to three of his questions: *How many miles per gallon (mpg) can you get with each? *What is their engines horse power (hp)? *Which model appears to have won the most awards? Based on this information, would you recom- mend your friend purchase the Prius or Focus?" (p.17)
Sahib, N. G., Tombros, A., & Stockman, T. (2012). A comparative analysis of the information‐seeking behavior of visually impaired and sighted searchers. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,63(2), 377-391.
Task type: Complex search task
Task type definition: "Lack of structure in search task definition. Include task characteristics such as uncertainty and vagueness. Lack of prior knowledge on search domain. Require several search iterations. Information from multiple sources has to be aggregated. Involve a decision-making stage after relevant information has been compared and analyzed." (p.381)
Tasks:
1 "You will soon be on leave from work and you would like to travel to X. You want to find out the best ways of getting to X and the different places to stay. You are also interested in the places to visit, the different things to do while you are on vacation, the places to eat etc. Use your favorite online search engine to help you plan your vacation to X" (p.382).
2 "Your friends have been talking a lot about e-books recently and you realize you do not know much about them. You decide to find out more about e-books online using an online search engine. You are particularly interested in ways to read e-books, the formats in which they are published and the devices/software you would need to use them. Gather the information on e-books and decide which one you would prefer" (p.382).
Wu, W., Kelly, D., Edwards, A., & Arguello, J. (2012). Grannies, tanning beds, tattoos and NASCAR: Evaluation of search tasks with varying levels of cognitive complexity. In Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium (254-257). New York, NY: ACM.
Task type: Remember
Task type definition: "Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory." (p.255)
Tasks:
1 "You recently watched a documentary about people living with HIV in the United States. You thought the disease was nearly eradicated, and are now curious to know more about the prevalence of the disease. Specifically, how many people in the US are currently living with HIV?" (p.257)
2 "You recently watched a show on the Discovery Channel, about fish that can live so deep in the ocean that they're in darkness most or all of the time. This made you more curious about the deepest point in the ocean. What is the name of the deepest point in the ocean?" (p.257)
Task type: Understand
Task type definition: "Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining." (p.255)
Tasks:
1 "Your nephew is considering trying out for a football team. Most of your relatives are supportive of the idea, but you think the sport is dangerous and are worried about the potential health risks. Specifically, what are some long-term health risks faced by football players?" (p.257)
2 "You recently became acquainted with one of the farmers at the local farmer's market. One day, over lunch, he was on a rant about how people are ruining the soil. He was clearly upset, so you're interested in finding out more. What are some human activities that degrade soil fertility?" (p.257)
Task type: Apply
Task type definition: "Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing." (p.255)
Tasks:
1
2
Task type: Analyze
Task type definition: "Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing." (p.255)
Tasks:
1 "Having heard some of the recent reports on risks of natural tanning, it seems like a better idea to sport an artificial tan this summer. What are some of the different types of artificial tanning methods? What are the health risks associated with each method?" (p.257)
2 "You recently became involved with a conservation group that picks-up trash from local waterways. One of the group members told you that your work was important because it helps keep pollution out of the ocean. What are some of the different types of ocean pollutants? What environmental risks are associated with each pollutant?" (p.257)
Task type: Evaluate
Task type definition: "Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing." (p.255)
Tasks:
1 "One of your siblings got a spur of the moment tattoo and now regrets it. What are the current available methods for tattoo removal, and how effective are they? Which method do you think is best? Why?" (p.257)
2 "You have noticed that online services such as Facebook have replaced face-to-face interactions. You can see the advantages of this style of communication, but your sibling argues that people are losing their ability to communicate face-to-face. In general, does use of computers for communication have a positive or negative impact on people's face-to-face social skills?" (p.257)
Task type: Create
Task type definition: "Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing." (p.255)
Tasks:
1 "Your great granny's doctor has told her that getting more exercise will increase her fitness and help her avoid injuries. Your great granny does not use the Internet and has asked you to create an exercise program for her. She is 90-years old. Put together two thirty-minute low-impact exercise programs that she could alternate between during the week." (p.257)
2 "After the NASCAR season opened this year, your niece became really interested in soapbox derby racing. Since her parents are both really busy, you've agreed to help her build a car so that she can enter a local race. The first step is to figure out how to build a car. Identify some basic designs that you might use and create a basic plan for constructing the car." (p.257)
Mason, L., Boldrin, A., & Ariasi, N. (2010). Searching the web to learn about a controversial topic: Are students epistemically active? Instructional Science, 38(6), 607-633.
Task type: Searching task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 Can the continuous use of mobile phones be a health hazard? (p.616)
Mason, L., Boldrin, A., & Ariasi, N. (2010). Epistemic metacognition in context: Evaluating and learning online information. Metacognition and Learning, 5(1), 67-90.
Task type: Searching task
Task type definition: "what caused the extinction of dinosaurs?" (p.75)
MacKay, B., & Watters, C. (2012). An examination of multisession web tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(6), 1183-1197.
Task type: Fact-finding
Task type definition: "answering a well-defined question" (p.1189).
Task type: Information gathering
Task type definition: "in-depth searching to make a decision or gather knowledge" (p.1190).
Task type: Transactions
Task type definition: "performing online services such as registering for a conference or making an online purchase" (p.1190)
Task type: Communications
Task type definition: "communicating with others" (p.1190)
Task type: Maintenance
Task type definition: "changing or updating an online resource such as a web page" (p.1190).
Lykke, M., Price, S., & Delcambre, L. (2012). How doctors search: A study of query behaviour and the impact on search results. Information Processing and Management, 48(6), 1151.
Task type: Information search task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Ex-smoker, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath. Two tentative diagnoses: (1) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) Lung cancer. First step is examination of COPD due to waiting time for lung cancer examination. Find documents that help you to decide referral procedure to follow to evaluate for COPD." (p.1157)
2 "Pregnant woman (week 23), light bleeding, no pain, no other abnormal conditions. Find documents that help you to decide if and how the patient should be referred to acute examination at hospital" (p.1157)
3 "Woman with two un-intentional miscarriages, ready to get pregnant again. Find documents that help you to decide if the patient should take folate, and at what dose." (p.1157)
4 "Man attacked with knife. Now nervous and afraid to leave his apartment. Find documents that help you to decide if the patient can be referred for free psychological help (covered by public insurance)" (p.1157)
Lokker, C., Haynes, R. B., Wilczynski, N. L., McKibbon, K. A., & Walter, S. D. (2011). Retrieval of diagnostic and treatment studies for clinical use through PubMed and PubMed's clinical queries filters. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA, 18(5), 652-659.
Task type: None
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Are antiseptics effective for reducing catheter-associated bloodstream infections in medical ICU patients?" (p.653).
2 "Can an ACE-inhibitor improve physical function in elderly people with functional impairment?" (p.653)
3 "What is the current best treatment for agitation in Alzheimer's disease?" (p.653).
4 "Is low-dose, self-administered anticoagulation safe for patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses?" (p.653)
5 "Does self-monitoring of blood glucose improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes not on insulin?" (p.653).
6 "Do probiotic Lactobacillus preparations prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea?" (p.653).
7 "Does N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic testing improve the management of patients with congestive heart failure?" (p.653).
8 "Does ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm reduce mortality for elderly men?" (p.653)
9 "Which of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets leads to greater weight loss over a year among premenopausal overweight women?" (p.653)
10 "Which is the preferred diagnostic procedure for patients with suspected acute stroke: MRI or CT?" (p.653)
11 "How sensitive is the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB?" (p.653)
12 "How accurate is multislice CT for the evaluation of coronary artery disease?" (p.653)
13 "What is the most sensitive non-invasive test for diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism?" (p.653)
Lazonder, A. W. (2005). Do two heads search better than one? effects of student collaboration on web search behaviour and search outcomes. British Journal of Educational Technology,36(3), 465-475.
Task type: Fact-Finding Search Task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "When was the first version of MS Windows released?" (p.469)
2 "What extinct species is found in Alice in Wonderland?" (p.469)
3 "There have been quite some attempts to circle the earth by hot air balloon. How many tries were needed to become the first man to achieve solo circumnavigation of the earth in a hot air balloon?" (p.469)
4 "For what reasons was the European Union established?" (p.469)
5 "Most people know that Indians live in tents. Inside and outside these tents, certain traditions and rules should be complied with. To illustrate, Indians do not want direct help in taking down their tent. Why is that so?" (p.469)
6 "Find the current opinions of three major European countries on a possible war with Iraq." (p.469)
He, D., Wu, D., Yue, Z., Fu, A., & Vo, K.T.. (2012). Undergraduate students' interaction with online information resources in their academic tasks. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 64(6), 615-640.
Task type: Simple individual academic tasks
Task type definition: "looking for definitions of concepts, looking for books, looking for articles, and looking for answers to a specific question" (p.621)
Task type: Complex individual academic tasks
Task type definition: "preparing for class assignments, preparing for a research paper, and preparing for an exam" (p.621)
Task type: Collaborative academic tasks
Task type definition: "the tasks involved in preparing for group projects and for co-authored research papers" (p.621).
Hargittai, E., Fullerton, L., Menchen-Trevino, E., & Thomas, K. Y. (2010). Trust online: Young adults' evaluation of web content. International Journal of Communication, 4, 468-494.
Task type: None
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Where do you look for information about current events?" (p.488)
2 "Here is a hypothetical. You have a strong opinion about an issue and a friend recommends that you write an email to the chair of the House Judiciary Committee expressing your concerns. Where do you send the message to reach this person?" (p.488)
3 "You need to read Act 2 Scene 4 from Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet by tomorrow for class. What is a quick way you can get access to it?" (p.488).
4 "You are at home in the middle of summer. A friend calls you frantically on Friday at midnight. The condom broke while she was with her boyfriend. What can she do to prevent pregnancy? Remember, neither of you is on campus. She lives in South Bend, Indiana." (p.488)
5 "(A) A friend of yours is graduating from high school. He has a 2.5 GPA and scored 24 on the ACT. What are the chances that he will get into the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign? [Wait until R finishes task] (B) . . . and how about Columbia College here in the city [Chicago]?" (p.488)
6 "(A) Your cousin is concerned about her health and wants to get an HIV test. She is not a student at any school, but lives here in Chicago. Can you help her find a place to get such a test? Where is the location of such a place and at what times are they open for this service? [Wait for R to find a place] (B) Lets say you want to go with her. How do you get to this place from UIC [University of Illinois, Chicago]? [Wait for R to approach the question and see if R figures out a method. Then follow up with the next question if R was not using public transportation in that case.] Can you get there using public transportation? How?" (p.488)
7 "You have to create a poster presentation for class. Youre most concerned about how such a document should look and how it can be created with minimal effort on your part concerning the layout. Find help online with your poster layout so that youre ready to go with your own project." (p.488)
8 "Does Microsoft Word store information about the author of a document? [Wait for response.] It turns out it does. How can you change the settings in the program so this information is not readily available when the document is shared? [Have R do it.] Is it possible to do this so no future documents have the identifying information? That is, change things so that you dont have to do this on every new document you start? [Wait for R to respond.] It is possible. Please find out how this can be done. [Dont have R actually do this, just have R find out information about how to do it.]" (p.489).
9 "You are helping your nephew with his homework. He needs a map of Charles Darwin's voyage around the globe, the entire voyage. Help him get such a map." (p.489)
10 "You need to address a letter to the following person and do not know whether this is a man or a woman. The person's first name is Harshini. Can you figure out whether this is likely a man or a woman?" (p.489)
11 "You are trying to figure out how to write a resume for a summer internship. Find an authoritative source on the subject that helps you identify four key things that need to be on the front page of your resume." (p.489)
12 "(A) I heard that in Victorian times, people could carry a special kind of notebook around with them and use it to copy quotations they read and clever sayings they heard. There was a specific name for that kind of notebook, but I've forgotten what it is. Can you tell me? (B) You are trying to figure out what two businesses are next door to Brandy Ho's Chinese restaurant in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco. What are they?" (p.489)
Gross, J. & Sheridan, L. (2011). Web scale discovery: The user experience. New Library World, 112(5/6), 236-247.
Task type: General subject search
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "You have been asked to write an essay on the following: with the advent of social networking sites cyber-bullying has been a serious issue in Australian schools. Discuss the issues of duty of care and school liability in relation to cyber-bullying. Find a book or journal article you think will help you prepare your answer" (p.240).
Task type: Known item, journal citation
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "You have been asked to read the article: The Jewish war: Goebbels and the antisemitic campaigns of the Nazi propaganda ministry. It was written by Jeffrey Herf, and is in Vol. 19, No. 1, of the Journal of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, from 04/2005. The article starts on page 51 and ends on page 80. Please find and download a copy of this article" (p.240)
Task type: Known item, book citation
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "You have been given the reference: Gregory, E., and Gregory, E. (2008). Learning to Read in a New Language: Making Sense of Words and Worlds, London: SAGE. Please find the call number (shelf number) of this item" (p. 240).
Task type: Known item, electronic reserve
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "You are studying ACS4101 and your lecturer has told you that a chapter of the book Prehistory of Australia by Derek John Mulvaney has been put on electronic reserve and is available for download. Using the library site (www.ecu.edu.au/library) find and download a copy of this chapter" (p.240)
Gardois, P., Calabrese, R., Colombi, N., Deplano, A., Lingua, C., Longo, F., Villanaccit, M., Miniero, R., Piga, A. (2011). Effectiveness of bibliographic searches performed by paediatric residents and interns assisted by librarians. A randomised controlled trial. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 28(4), 273-284.
Task type: None
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Gaia is a 9-month-old girl with serious sleep disorders. Her parents bring her to the paediatrician for the first time to evaluate the situation. Gaia is not able to sleep for more than half an hour at a time, causing restless nights to all the family. Her parents, being visibly in trouble, ask for a definitive solution. It seems that they have tried everything to reassure their child and to promote quiet nights, without positive results. They ask if it is possible to administer a drug that they have heard may resolve sleep disturbance in children. Is treatment with niaprazine effective in improving nocturnal sleep in children with sleep disorders?" (p. 282).
2 "Mark, a 4-and-a-half-year-old boy, comes to the paediatrician with snoring problems, which have persisted since he was 2 years old. For the last 3 months, he has repeatedly stopped breathing in his sleep, while tossing a lot. His parents are very worried because an otorhinolaryngologist has diagnosed adenotonsillar hypertrophy, highly recommending removal of adenoids and a tonsillectomy to solve sleep apnoea. They ask for the possibility to avoid surgery by administering a drug to reduce the number of sleep apnoeas. Which treatment is more effective in reducing the number of apnoea episodes in children with sleep apnoea syndrome?" (p.282).
3 "Ann, a 7-year-old girl, shows symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection and fever (38.8C for the past 2 days) treated with paracetamol, 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours by rectal administration. After each dose, her body temperature drops to subfebrile values for <1 hour before rising again. Her mother asks the paediatrician if it is possible to administer an alternative therapy for a more effective fever control Is ibuprofen more effective alone or in combination with paracetamol in controlling fever in children?" (p.282)
4 "Louis, a 2-year-old boy, comes to the ER for barking cough started suddenly during the night and worsened in the early morning. His body temperature is 37C and he looks quiet, but during the visit he starts crying, while breathing deteriorates. Laryngitis is diagnosed. Which therapy is more effective: inhaled corticosteroids, adrenaline by inhalation or a combination of both?" (p.283).
5 "Martha, a 2-and-a-half-year-old healthy girl, has had a temperature for the past 2 days (<39C) and rhinitis treated with paracetamol (15 mg/kg). A few hours before, she had a 1-minute generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Clinical examination reveals good general health, T = 37.8C, little evidence of neurological deficits, no meningeal irritation signs, swollen pharynx. Personal and family medical histories record no previous instances of similar diseases. A diagnosis of simple febrile seizures is made. Her worried parents ask for a therapy to prevent further episodes. Is long-term drug prophylaxis useful after the first onset of simple febrile seizures?" (p.283)
6 "Andrew, a 17-month-old infant, for the past few days has had a cold with runny nose, cough and fever up to 38.8C, treated with paracetamol until the day before. His parents report that he is more irritable than usual and that he wakes up crying several times during the night. At the moment, his body temperature is normal. Physical examination does not find particular symptoms, except for a slight reddening of the left tympanic membrane without middle ear fluid, and an extroversion of the right tympanic membrane with white liquid inside. Otitis media is diagnosed. Is antibiotic therapy indicated in such a child?" (p.283)
7 "Laurence is a 5-year-old boy. His parents have noticed a non-symptomatic lump on the side of the neck. Clinical history does not report any significant problems nor recent infectious episodes. The paediatrician detects the presence of a 5 6 cm lymph node package and some small palpable lymph nodes, respectively, on his necks right and left side, without other findings. Is antibiotic therapy indicated in a child with isolated lymphadenopathy, or is simple observation to be preferred?" (p.283)
8 "Albert, a 7-year-old boy, has been suffering from skin lesions at the back of his right hand for a few days. Clinical examination reveals crusted yellow-brown lesions, without fever or lymphadenopathy. The paediatrician diagnoses impetigo, prescribing topical antibiotic therapy with mupirocin. Alberts mother, worried about possible contagion, asks whether the prescribed ointment is sufficient, or oral antibiotic is to be preferred Is topical therapy with mupirocin effective for clinical recovery in a school-aged child with impetigo?" (p.283)
9 "Lisa, a 5-year-old girl, comes to the paediatrician because her mother has noticed nits in her hair. She was treated twice for head lice 2 months ago (once with permethrin and once with malathion), and after each treatment, she was found free from insects and eggs at inspection before coming back to school. Also, the current episode has occurred a few days after returning to school, with the usual signs and symptoms (live insects, eggs and itching). The paediatrician detects the presence of only 1 live insect and some eggs attached to the hair base, behind the ears and the neck, with reddened and peeled-off scalp. Lisa usually complains about burning and itching after applying head lice products. Her mother is worried about possible toxicity of these compounds and asks for a less irritating but equally effective treatment. Is treatment with physical/chemical agents a valid alternative to conventionally used insecticides (permethrin, malathion, pyrethrins) in children with recurrent head lice?" (p.284).
10 "Eileen, a 3-year-old girl, comes to the ambulatory centre for a probable urinary tract infection (UTI), with fever and urination pain. The urinary stick analysis shows white blood cells, nitrites and blood. The paediatrician decides to start a 710 day oral antibiotic therapy immediately after urine collection for microscopy and culture. As Eileen recently underwent antibiotic therapy, her parents ask if a shorter course (24 days) can have the same efficacy. Is short course antibiotic therapy (24 day) as effective as long course (714 day) in children with UTI?" (p.284)
11 "Julia, a 1-month-old infant, for a few days has been presenting with inconsolable crying of variable duration, with leg retraction towards the abdomen as if suffering from abdominal pain. She is breast-milk-fed and her growth is regular; no pathological findings are observed. Her mother reports having tried fennel infusion that the child does not seem to like. A friend, who had the same problem with his son, has suggested some drops of simeticone. Julias mother asks for advice Is simeticone effective in significantly reducing colic in infants with gas in the abdomen?" (p.284).
12 "Luke is a 6-year-old boy allergic to dust mites and cat dander. He has been suffering from allergic asthma for about 1 and a half years, with periodic exacerbations treated with beta-2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids. Because of recent increase in asthma episodes, his mother asks the paediatrician if it is possible to administer a drug to prevent the attacks. The paediatrician prescribes montelukast (one 5-mg tablet in the evening for 2 months), trying to reassure her. Is a leukotriene receptor antagonist therapy such as montelukast effective in reducing attack recurrence in a child with recurrent allergic asthma?" (p.284)
Foss, E., Druin, A., Brewer, R., Lo, P., Sanchez, L., Golub, E., & Hutchinson, H. (2012). Children's search roles at home: Implications for designers, researchers, educators, and parents.Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(3), 558-573.
Task type: Complex search task
Task type definition: "This is the name we give to a search task that is designed to be complex in nature, requiring the searcher to break the task into smaller pieces that the search engine could process. However, each of these smaller pieces could themselves be a simple search, not requiring advanced query formation techniques" (p.560).
Tasks:
1 Which day of the week will the Vice President's birthday be on next year? (p. 561).
Task type: Simple search task
Task type definition: One that does not require "advanced query formation techniques" (p. 560).
Tasks:
1 Can you show me and explain how you usually search for information on the computer? (p. 561)
2 If you were searching for your own interest, what would you search for? Can you show me? (p.561).
3 Can you search for information on dolphins? (p.561).
4 Can you search for information on what dolphins eat? (p.561).
Foss, E., Druin, A., Yip, J., Ford, W., Golub, E., & Hutchinson, H. (2013). Adolescent search roles. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(1), 173-189.
Task type: Complex Search Task
Task type definition: "We define complex search tasks as those that require multiple steps to achieve the answersearchers must break the task into smaller pieces to succeed" (p.175).
Tasks:
1 Which day of the week will the current vice president's birthday be on next year? (p.176)
2 Was Michael Jackson's music more popular in 1983 or in 2009? (p.176)
Task type: Simple search task
Task type definition: open-ended or one step questions (p.177)
Tasks:
1 Can you show me how you usually search for information on the computer (p.176)
2 Can you search for something for your own interest that you've never searched for before? (p.176)
3 Can you search for information on dolphins (p.176).
4 Can you search for information on what dolphins like to eat? (p.176)
Evans, B. M., Kairam, S., & Pirolli, P. (2010). Do your friends make you smarter?: An analysis of social strategies in online information seeking. Information Processing and Management, 46(6), 679-692.
Task type: Exploratory search task
Task type definition: "We wanted to observe the search process for exploratory queries, or ones that involve incremental learning and investigating (Marchionini, 2006). Thus, we required questions that were unfamiliar and also Google-hard. We determined that a question was Google-hard if, even after several attempts in major search engines, very few result listings had high information scent" (681).
Tasks:
1 "If we lowered the US national speed limit to 55 miles per hour (MPH) (89 km/h), how many fewer barrels of oil would the US consume every year?" (p. 681)
2 "What role does pyrolytic oil (or pyrolysis) play in the debate over carbon emissions?" (p.681)
Eastin, M.S., Yang, M. & Nathanson, A. (2006) Children of the net: An empirical exploration into the evaluation of internet content. Journal of Broadcasting &Electronic Media, 50(2), 211-230.
Task type: None
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Locate information about "pugs" through a keyword search" (p.219)
Dimopoulos, K., & Asimakopoulos, A. (2010). Science on the web: Secondary school students' navigation patterns and preferred pages' characteristics. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 19(3), 246-265.
Task type: Search
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Provide the definition of cloning" (p. 251).
2 "Describe the procedure of nuclear cloning" (p.251).
3 "Find out the most important advantages and disadvantages of cloning" (p.251).
4 "Mention ethical dilemmas raised by cloning as a reproduction method" (p.251).
5 "Describe the potential applications of cloning with regard to treatment of human health problems" (p.251).
Choi, Y. (2010). Effects of contextual factors on image searching on the web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(10), 2011-2028.
Task type: Search task - academic related
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Preparing a PowerPoint presentation or a project for a class; writing a research paper for a class" (p.2017)
Task type: Search task - work related
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Creating a slideshow on the production of ethanol and other biofuels for internship work; preparing a publication for incoming freshmen students; preparing a college newspaper article or a yearbook; making a Web site for the university career services; volunteering work for an attorney general campaign" (p.2017)
Task type: Search task - personal activities or interests
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Blog writing; bike building; e-shopping; activity participation; collage making for Mother's Day gift; getting to know a place for a mission trip" (p.2017)
Bowler, L. (2010). The self-regulation of curiosity and interest during the information search process of adolescent students.Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(7), 1332-n/a.
Task type: Information Seeking
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "The information-seeking task was created and assigned by the teacher. The 10 participants were asked to write a 78-page argumentative essay exploring continuity and change in Western civilization, on a topic of their choice. To do so, they searched for, selected, evaluated, and used information from a variety of sources over the course of the fall 2006 term" (p.1336).
Barsky, E & Bar-Ilan, J. (2005). From the search problem through query formulation to results on the web. Online Information Review, 29(1), 75-89.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "Provide the leading companies of the industry you are covering" (p.82).
2 "Provide the revenues of the companies identified in Question 1" (p.82).
3 "Provide the market forecast for the chosen industry" (p.82).
4 "Provide the market segment of the retrieved companies" (p.82).
5 "Provide categorization of the retrieved sources" (p.82).
Berg, S. A., Hoffmann, K., & Dawson, D. (2010). Not on the same page: Undergraduates' information retrieval in electronic and print books. the Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(6), 518-525.
Task type: Fact searching
Task type definition: "The tasks involved searching for discrete pieces of information or general sections in the book, and could be completed via several conceivable methods. This kind of information retrieval task is known as 'fact searching' " (p.521)
Tasks:
1 "Find information about the 'Alexander Technique' in alleviating chronic pain" (p.520).
2 "Find information about which animal models are used in asthma research" (p.520).
3 "Find a summary table that outlines the USDA soil classification system" (p.520).
4 "Do both the genus and species names of an organism need to be capitalized?" (p.520).
5 "What are the effects of Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (DDT) on eggshell formation in birds?" (p.520).
6 "What is the difference between WiFi and Bluetooth?" (p.520)
7 "What are the indoor air contaminants associated with children's asthma?" (p.520)
8 "Find information about the relationship between garlic and heart disease" (p.520).
Barsky, E., & Bar‐Ilan, J. (2012). The impact of task phrasing on the choice of search keywords and on the search process and success. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 1987-2005.
Task type: Web search, matching phrasing
Task type definition: "A matching phrasing was a task whose wording matched the text of the target page" (p.1987).
Tasks:
1 "What is the most important concern US adults have about their financial future today, according to a 2007 poll?" (p.1991)
2 "What was the overall forecast for the total consumer online spending in 2006 in the US?" (p.1991)
3 "[English translation]: According to a survey conducted in Israel, what is the major criterion that impacts the choice of bank by Israeli financial consumers? " (p.1991)
4 "[English translation]: According to data from research that was conducted in 2005 in Israel, what percentage of children, according to their own words, tends to correspond with or talk to unfamiliar people over the Internet?" (p.1991)
Task type: Web search, nonmatching phrasing
Task type definition: "A nonmatching phrasing was synonymous with the matching phrasing, but had no match with the target page" (p.1987).
Tasks:
1 "What were the total estimates of all Internet shopping expenditures of Americans in 2006?" (p.1991)
2 "According to adult Americans polled in a 2007 study, which financial aspect of their future bothers them the most today?" (p.1991)
3 "[English translation]: According to Israeli research from 2005, what percentage of children says about themselves that they are inclined to converse with strangers over the Internet or write to them?" (p.1991)
4 "[English translation]: According to research prepared in Israel, what is the crucial consideration for joining a certain bank among Israeli clients?" (p.1991)
Blomgren, L., Vallo, H., & Bystrom, K. (2004). Evaluation of an information system in an information seeking process. In Heery, R., & Lyon, L. (eds.), Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (8th European Conference, ECDL 2004, Bath, UK, September 12-17, 2004, Proceedings), 57-68.
Task type: Simulated work task situation
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 The Terror Attacks in USA September 11th: Some time has passed since the terror attacks in USA. GP is now planning a follow-up and a summarizing series of articles on the subject, which will illustrate how different areas have been affected and the long term consequences. You have been asked to write an article that will illustrate this issue from your particular subject field. (p.60)
Uddin, M.N., & Janecek, P. (2007). Performance and usability testing of multidimensional taxonomy in web site search and navigation. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 8(1), 18-33.
Task type: Structured tasks
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 Task 1: Look for scholarship information for a masters program. (p.25)
2 Task 2: Look for staff recruitment information. (p.25)
3 Task 3: Look for research and associated faculty member information within your interested area. (p.25)
Millen, D., Yang, M., Whittaker, S., & Feinberg, J. (2007). Social bookmarking and exploratory search. ECSCW '07: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 21-40.
Task type: Community browsing
Task type definition: Examining bookmarks created by the community by time (recent bookmarks,), by frequency (most popular sites bookmarked), by people, and by tags. (p.28)
Task type: Personal search
Task type definition: Looking for bookmarks from ones own personal collection of bookmarks. (p.28)
Task type: Explicit search
Task type definition: Using a traditional search box to enter a set of search terms. (p.28)
Kules, B., Capra, R., Banta, M., & Sierra, T. (2009). What do exploratory searchers look at in a faceted search interface? Proceedings of the 9th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, 313-322.
Task type: Exploratory tasks
Task type definition: Desirable characteristics of exploratory search tasks: uncertainty, ambiguity, discovery, be an unfamiliar domain for the searcher, provide a low-level of specificity about how to find the information, and be a situation that provides enough imaginative context for the participant to relate and apply the situation. (p.315)
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are taking a class called Feminism in the United States. For this class you need to write a research paper on some aspect of the U.S. feminist movement, but have yet to decide on a topic. Use the catalog to find two possible topics for your paper. Then use the catalog to find three books for each topic so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.315)
2 Your professor wants you to write a paper comparing the textile industry in three countries in three different continents. Use the catalog to find three countries which have a textile industry about which books have been written. Find three books for each country. (p.315)
3 Imagine you are taking a class titled Great Britain and its Colonies in the Twentieth Century. For this class you need to write a research paper on some aspect of the relationship between Great Britain and its Colonies in the Twentieth Century but you have yet to decide on one. Use the catalog to find two possible topics for your paper. Then use the catalog to find three books for each topic so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.315-316)
4 You are taking a class called History of the Olympic Games for which you need to write a research paper. You have yet to decide on a specific topic for this paper. Use the library catalog to explore possible topics and find two. Then find at least three books for each so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.316)
Task type: Known-item tasks
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 Your professor has suggested that your group begin your project on Conservation and Biological Diversity by looking up background information in a book titled Firefly encyclopedia of trees. (p.316)
2 You are working your way through the Harry Potter books and are ready to read the next one on your list, titled Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. (p.316)
Kelly, D., Gyllstrom, K., & Bailey, E.W. (2009). A comparison of query and term suggestion features for interactive searching. Proceedings of the 32nd International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 371-378.
Kelly, D., Cushing, A., Dostert, M., Niu, X., & Gyllstrom, K. (2010). Effects of popularity and quality on the usage of query suggestions during information search. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 45-54.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 354: journalist risks - Identify instances where a journalist has been put at risk (e.g., killed, arrested or taken hostage) in the performance of his work. (p.48)
2 426: law enforcement, dogs - Provide information on the use of dogs worldwide for law enforcement purposes. (p. 48)
3 393: mercy killing - Identify documents that discuss mercy killings. (p.48)
4 638: wrongful convictions - Find documents that discuss freed prisoners who have been wrongfully convicted based on faulty forensic evidence, poor police work, or false testimony. (p.48)
Kammerer, Y., Nairn, R., Pirolli, P., & Chi, E.H. (2009). Signpost from the masses: Learning effects in an exploratory social tag search browser. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 625-634.
Task type: Page collection task (easy)
Task type definition: Participants... were requested to find as many pages as possible relevant to specific queries. The first Page Collection task was easy... based on the difficulty ratings obtained in pilot tests. (p.629)
Tasks:
1 Future architecture domain: Pictures about Future Architecture. (p.629)
2 Global Warming domain: Campaigns to fight Global Warming. (p.629)
3 Web Mashups domain: Examples of Web Mashups. (p.629)
Task type: Page collection task (difficult)
Task type definition: Participants... were requested to find as many pages as possible relevant to specific queries... The second [Page Collection task was] difficult, based on the difficulty ratings obtained in pilot tests. (p.629)
Tasks:
1 Future Architecture domain: Architects or architecture firms from the US engaged in Future Architecture. (p.629)
2 Global Warming domain: Predictions about effects of Global Warming. (p.629)
3 Web Mashups domain: How can Web Mashups be created. (p.629)
Task type: Summarization task
Task type definition: Participants were... asked to write a short coherent summary (max. 300 words) addressing one or two global questions or aspects concerning the topic domain... Participants were instructed to browse/search for the requested information and were restricted to include only information they found in their browsing. (p.630)
Tasks:
1 Future Architecture domain: Styles, forms and systems of architecture of the future: 1. Three different topics what "Future Architecture" could be about; 2. Summarize all 3 topics. (p.630)
2 Global Warming domain: Controversy about human-caused Global Warming: 1. Arguments or evidence in favor and against human-caused Global Warming; 2. Individuals/organizations who promote these arguments. (p.630)
3 Web Mashups domain: Use of Web Mashups: 1. Benefits of the use of Web Mashups. (p.630)
Task type: Keywords task
Task type definition: Participants... were requested to generate and type in as many keywords as possible that were relevant to the corresponding topic domain. (p.630)
Goldberg, J.H., Stimson, M.J., Lewenstein, M., Scott, N., & Wichansky, A.M. (2002). Eye tracking in Web search tasks: Design implications. Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications, 51-58.
Task type: Experimental search tasks
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 Find the "List of Applications" portlet, then use the "Hide & Show" tool (p.53)
2 Customize a portlet by subtracting items (p.53)
3 Remove a portlet (p.53)
4 Customize a portlet name (p.53)
5 Use the employee directory to get a phone number (p.53)
6 Logout (p.53)
Maynard, D.C., & Hakel, M.D. (1997). Effects of objective and subjective task complexity on performance. Human Performance, 10(4), 303-330.
Task type:
Task type definition:
Tasks:
1
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Tasks:
1
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Tasks:
1
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Tasks:
1
Morris, D., Morris, M.R., & Venolia, G. (2008). SearchBar: A search-centric web history for task resumption and information re-finding. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1207-1216.
Task type: Re-finding tasks
Task type definition: "re-finding previously encountered online content" (p.1209)
Tasks:
1 During the first of two sessions, "the experimenter sent an IM (playing the role of the CEO) asking for the name of a restaurant in Chicago that served New York Style pizza where he could take a client for lunch during a business trip" (p.1211). During the second session, an instant message from "the CEO" asked for "the name of a hotel located near the recommended pizza restaurant" (p.1212).
2 During the first of two sessions, the experimenter sent an IM (playing the role of the CEO) asking the study participant "to recommend a digital camera he should purchase that met certain resolution and zoom requirements" (p.1211). During the second session, an instant message from "the CEO" asked for "the name of a store selling the recommended camera for a good price" (p.1212).
3 During the first of two sessions, the experimenter sent an IM (playing the role of the CEO) "requesting statistics about the incidence of the flu during 2005 and 2006, in order to help him decide whether to pay for employee flu shots" (p.1211). During the second session, an instant message from "the CEO" asked for "a comparison of the 2005-2006 flu incidence with that of prior years" (p.1212).
Lee, J.H., Renear, A., & Smith, L.C. (2006). Known-item search: Variations on a concept. ASIST Proceedings, 43, 1-17.
Capra, R.B., & Perez-Quinones, M.A. (2003). Re-finding found things: An exploratory study of how users re-find information. http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0310011.
Task type: Finding tasks
Task type definition: "involved finding information on the Internet using a web browser" (p.4)
Tasks:
1 "1) finding two movie showtimes at two theaters for three movies" (p.4)
2 "2) finding the phone numbers and addresses for four nearby restaurants" (p.4)
3 "3) finding information (event name, location, price, and hours) about three events or tourist locations for a trip to San Francisco" (p.4)
4 "4) finding names, price ranges, and phone numbers for restaurants in San Francisco for four different types of cuisine (Italian, Chinese, Thai, and American)" (p.4)
5 "5) a user-defined task that allowed the user to decide a specific piece of information to look up on the web" (p.4)
Task type: Refinding tasks
Task type definition: "involved re-finding information that had been found during the first session" (p.4)
Tasks:
1 "remember or re-find the name of a movie and re-find the earliest showtimes at two theaters, also re-find the rating for the movie" (p.4)
2 "remember or re-find the names of two restaurants and re-find their phone numbers" (p.4)
3 "re-find the names and locations of all the events or tourist activities related to San Francisco that were found during the first session" (p.4)
4 "re-find the names and addresses of one Italian and one Chinese restaurant in San Francisco" (p.4)
5 "try to refind the information from the user-defined task from the first session" (p.4)
Rieh, S.Y., Kim, Y.-M., & Markey, K. (2012). Amount of invested mental effort (AIME) in online searching. Information Processing & Management, 48, 1136-1150.
Task type: Research Task
Task type definition: Searching for an academic purpose; designed to be generic, "so that students can adapt their own research topic" (p.1140)
Tasks:
1 "I would like you to do a search for your term paper topic. If youve already done some research, just pick up from where you left off. Dont repeat searches youve done in the past [Research Task]." (p.1140)
Task type: Product Task
Task type definition: Searching for product information on the Web; "less generic because there might be high level of variance in product search among college students depending on their familiarity or experience with this topic" (p.1140)
Tasks:
1 "You want to buy a new digital camera and you need to decide which model you would buy. You would like to read some reviews about digital camera to help you make a decision [Product Task]." (p.1140)
Ramdeen, S., & Hemminger, B. (2012). A tale of two interfaces: How facets affect the library catalog search experience. JASIST, 63(4), 702-715.
Task type: Known
Task type definition: "A complete description of the item is given. There is only one item that fits the criteria given." (p.708)
Tasks:
1 "A friend was recently talking about a book she read about language and youd like to read it for yourself. Find out whether the library has a copy of Steven Pinkers The Stuff of Thought." (p.708)
Task type: Partially known
Task type definition: "A partially complete description of an item is given. There is only one item that fits the criteria given." (p. 708)
Tasks:
1 "This summer you are taking a trip to Europe and to get ready for your trip you want to read some travel books. You have read other books by travel author Bill Bryson and you think he wrote one about Europe. See if the library has it in their collection." (p.708)
Task type: Exploratory
Task type definition: "A search topic is given along with suggested search terms. There can be many items that fit the criteria." (p.708)
Tasks:
1 "You need to write a paper about the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. Find 3 resources relating Schopenhauer to aesthetics you would use to begin your research. Be sure the resources you find are in English." (p.708)
Kules, B., & Capra, R. (2012). Influence of training and stage of search on gaze behavior in a library catalog faceted search interface. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 63(1), 114-138.
Task type: Exploratory search tasks
Task type definition: Exploratory tasks inherently have uncertainty, ambiguity, iteration, and discovery as common aspects... They can be roughly characterized as learning-oriented or investigative, thus distinguishing them from lookup-oriented tasks. (p.115)
Tasks:
1 Imagine you are taking a class called Feminism in the United States. For this class you need to write a research paper on some aspect of the U.S. feminist movement, but have yet to decide on a topic. Use the catalog to find two possible topics for your paper. Then use the catalog to find three books for each topic so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.138)
2 Your professor wants you to write a paper comparing the textile industry in three countries in three different continents. Use the catalog to find three countries which have a textile industry about which books have been written. Find three books for each country. (p.138)
3 Imagine you are taking a class titled Great Britain and its Colonies in the Twentieth Century. For this class you need to write a research paper on some aspect of the relationship between Great Britain and its Colonies in the Twentieth Century but you have yet to decide on one. Use the catalog to find two possible topics for your paper. Then use the catalog to find three books for each topic so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.138)
4 You are taking a class called History of the Olympic Games for which you need to write a research paper. You have yet to decide on a specific topic for this paper. Use the library catalog to explore possible topics and find two. Then find at least three books for each so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.138)
5 You are taking a course in medical sociology. You have decided to write a paper on epidemics but need to focus on a more specific aspect of this topic. Use the library catalog to find three possible topics relating to epidemics and three books for each topic. (p.138)
6 Imagine you are taking a class titled Native Americans in the Colonial period. For this class you need to write a research paper on some aspect of the topic Native Americans in the Colonial period but you have yet to decide on one. Use the catalog to find two possible topics for your paper. Then use the catalog to find three books for each topic so that you might make a decision as to which topic to write about. (p.138)
Alhenshiri, A., Watters, C., Shepherd, M., & Duffy, J. (2012). Building support for Web information gathering tasks. Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 1687-1696.
Task type: Information gathering task
Task type definition: "x The task should indicate uncertainty or ambiguity in information need, or need for discovery. x The task should require knowledge acquisition, comparison, or discovery. x The task should provide a low level of specificity about the information required in the task and how to find such information. x The task should provide enough imaginative contexts for the study participants to be able to relate and apply the situation." (p.1690)
Tasks:
1 "You have a friend who asked you to provide her with valuable information about Canadian universities that she may consider for a graduate degree in business. What kind of information would you like to send to your friend providing her with a comparison of two universities? Provide your choice of the universities. Provide links to at most five web pages you find helpful in making your choices. Also, provide a copy of the information you would send to your friend which shows the comparison. You will need to come back to reuse the information you found in this task. " (p.1690)
2 "Last time, you selected two Canadian universities for your friend to pursue a graduate degree in business. Now, your friend asked you to provide her with two choices of American universities to consider for a graduate degree in business. Choose two American universities with graduate degrees in business and then find up to five websites that would allow you to make a comparison between the Canadian universities you already selected and these two American universities. Provide the results of your comparison (information you used in the comparison) in addition to links to at most five web pages you find useful in making the comparison" (p.1690)
Task type:
Task type definition:
Sellen, A.J., Murphy, R., & Shaw, K.L. (2002). How knowledge workers use the Web. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2002), 227-234.
Portnoy, F. (2012). Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting The Perception Of Online Banner Ads. Unpublished dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Task type: Known-item search
Task type definition: Discrete and well-structured objects such as numbers, names, short statements, or specific files of text or other media.
Tasks:
1 South Korea

1. How many pieces of historic relics were excavated from Anapji Pond? a. 9000 b. 18000 c. 1700 d. 33000*

2. How many square kilometers does the Seoraksan National Park cover? a. 327.4 b. 13.9 c. 470.1 d. 163.6*

3. To which city the National Museum of Korea was relocated? a. Yongsan-gu* b. Cheongju c. Incheon d. Seongnam

4. In which year did King Taejong move to Hanyang? a. 1405* b. 535 c. 1741 d. 236

5. How many malls are located in Dongdaemun Market? a. 7 b. 46 c. 26* d. 43
2 Slovakia

1. Which queen restored the significance of Bratislava? a. Queen Maria Theresa* b. Queen Mary c. Queen Elizabeth II d. Queen Teuta

2. In which year the Slovak National Museum was established? a. 1903 b. 1961* c. 1973 d. 1993

3. What is the name of the architect who designed the National House? a. Ilija Arnautović b. Matev Čelik c. Emil Belu* d. Niko Kralj

4. Which part in the Orava Castle is open for the public? a. Servants' Quarter b. Gate Hoise c. Tower d. Dungeon*

5. How many pools can be found in Tatralandia? a. 7 b. 12 c. 25 d. 11*
3 Paraguay

1. Which collected in the Museo del Barro is most popular? a. Mayan dresses b. Balam arrowheads c. Guarani ceramics* d. Votan paintings

2. What was the military rank of Mariano Recalde? a. Captain b. Lieutenant* c. General d. Colonel

3. How many waterfalls are in Iguassu Falls? a. 275* b. 55 c. 215 d. 116

4. What is the meaning of the logo that Moses Bertoni used in his forms? a. Humble immigrant b. Paraguay is me c. From the jungle* d. Victory and justice

5. How many years did it tale to build the Holy Trinity of Paran? a. 61* b. 97 c. 194 d. 121
4 Moldova

1. What is the last name of the architect who designed the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History? a. Tsigankov* b. Galchinski c. Meldaze d. Kara

2. In what depth the bottles of wine are store in Milestii Mici? a. 80 meters* b. 55 meters c. 90 meters d. 140 meters

3. Before reopening in 1990, what year was the Saharna Monastery closed? a. 1979 b. 1783 c. 1935 d. 1964*

4. Which structure is located above the entrance to Soroca Fort? a. Visitor Center b. Wine Celler c. Guard Post d. Military Church*

5. What is the distance between Chisinau and Serpeni monument? a. 39 km b. 55 km* c. 85 km d. 40 km
5 Guatemala

1. Which airport was affected by the 1998 eruption of Pacaya Volcano? a. Chiquimula b. La Aurora* c. Mundo Maya d. Puerto Barrios

2. What was the type of entertainer seen at Parque Central? a. Story Teller b. Juggler* c. Clown d. Musician

3. How many archeological exhibits are displayed at the Museo Popol Vuh? a. 800 b. 400* c. 700 d. 500

4. How many square miles of jungle comprise Tikal National Park? a. 222* b. 286 c. 64 d. 383

5. Which doors should tourists use when they enter the church in ChiChi Market? a. Yellow doors b. Back doors c. White doors d. Side doors*
6 Bulgaria

1. On the foundations of which basilica the archaeological museum was built? a. Basilica of the Holy Mother of God Eleusa b. Basilica of the Merciful Virgin c. Basilica of Pliska d. Basilica of Bishop Yoan*

2. What is Olimpi Panov famous for? a. Established the central bank b. First president of Bulgarua c. Liberated Bulgaria from the Ottoman rule* d. Signed a truce with Prussia

3. What is the name of the town where the Museum of Wood-Carving is located? a. Kazanluk b. Peshtera c. Tryavna* d. Velingrad

4. In which year was the Sofia Synagogue partially destroyed as a result of bombings? a. 1916 b. 1944* c. 1943 d. 1932

5. In which date does the Fire Dance take place? a. June 3rd* b. July 28th c. March 11th d. September 19th
7 Namibia

1. What is the name of the ocean current that affects the temperature of the Skeleton Coast Park? a. Mocambique b. Oyashio c. Canary d. Benguela*

2. How many bird species have been recorded at The Daan Viljoen Game Reserve? a. 200* b. 150 c. 240 d. 120

3. What does the name "Etosha" mean? a. Salt land b. Place of worship c. Bushland d. Place of dry water*

4. What is the name of the minority group of people living in Bwabwata National Park? a. Lozian b. Caprivian* c. Subian d. Mbukushuan

5. Which region in Namibia has example of Bushman rock art? a. Erongo b. Damaraland* c. Ohangwena d. Kaokoland
8 Turkey

1. Which ruler built the first building of Hagia Sophia church? a. Maximinus I b. Gordian I c. Constantius I* d. Licinius I

2. What does the name "Pamukkale" mean? a. Pool of sapphire b. Majestic view c. Cotton castle* d. Water of the earth

3. What is the cost of admission to the terrace houses? a. 14.15 b. 2.85 c. 8.35* d. 10.15

4. What is one of the flower patterns used in the tiles covering the Blue Mosque? a. Banksia b. Cornflower c. Gladiolus d. Tulip*

5. Whom did the Attalids fight against during the first and second Macedonian Wars? a. Philip V of Macedon* b. Hannibal of Carthage c. Nabis of Sparta d. Pandion II of Athens
9 Djibouti

1. What is Djibouti's national pastime? a. Playing Backgammon b. Chewing Qat* c. Hunting Jerboa d. Watching a local TV show

2. Which species flourishes in Lake Assal? a. Bacteria* b. Lizards c. Insects d. Scorpions

3. Which foreign Djibouti residents favor Khor Ambado? a. German b. English c. French* d. Dutch

4. For which type of bird Lake Abbe is known? a. Imperial Eagles b. Storm-Petrels c. Pelicans d. Flamingos*

5. In the 19th century, how many Ethiopian slaves were shipped via Tadjoura per year? a. 8000 b. 12000 c. 6000* d. 4000
10 Bhutan

1. Which king the National Memorial Chorten honors? a. Tenzin Drukgye b. Jigme Dorji Wangchuck* c. Mipham Wangpo d. Chhogyel Sonam Gyaltshen

2. How many temples did King Songtsen Gampo build? a. 61 b. 263 c. 108* d. 141

3. By which name Gyelchoks descendants are known for? a. Children of Parob b. Lords of Humrel* c. Singye Eagles d. Drugyel Sun-rays

4. What does the word "Dochey" mean? a. Leader b. Courtyard* c. River d. Mansion

5. Which animal is being referred to as a "bee-stung moose? a. Seadragon b. Sun Bear c. Aye-aye d. Takin*
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: ...requires the user to perform multiple iterations of their queries and to interpret a variety of information representations while performing qualitative judgments of the information retrieved.
Tasks:
1 1. Bhutan: The Bhutanese measure their quality of life using the "gross domestic happiness." Based on the articles you read, please postulate why they chose this measure as oppose to the standard income measure. Does this measure describe their quality of life more accurately?
2 2. South Korea: Does the natural surrounding affect the traditional culture in South Korea? Please explain your answer.
3 3. Bulgaria: Bulgarian culture has been influenced by many religious traditions. Based on the articles you read, how do modern Bulgarians integrate these traditions in the current day?
4 4. Slovakia: What is your perceived condition of the infrastructure in Slovakia? Does that affect your interest to travel in this country? Please explain.
5 5. Moldova: Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Moldova has been making attempts to restore its national heritage. Based on the articles your reviewed, were they successful? Please explain.
6 6. Paraguay: What effect (if any) did the European settlers had on Paraguay? Please refer to the articles in your response.
7 7. Guatemala: What is the relationship between descendants of the Spanish settlers and the indigenous people of Guatemala?
8 8. Namibia: Does the Namibian government allocate sufficient resources to protect its natural and wildlife resources? Please explain your answer based on the articles you read.
9 10. Djibouti: How safe it is to travel in Djibouti? Please explain your rationale.
Rieh, S.Y. (2002). Judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 53(2), 145-161.
Task type: Generic tasks
Task type definition: "outlined the kinds of tak, but did not restrict the specific information problems" (p.149)
Tasks:
1 For the research project in which you are currently engaged, you would like to find some good papers which are new to you, which you think will be useful.
2 You are planning for the next conference that you are going to attend, and would like to find useful information about hotels, restaurants, and features of interest in that city.
3 A friend of yours has just been diagnosed as having schistosomiasis, and you want to find credible information about the disease itself, and the best methods of treatment.
4 You've decided that you want to buy a new computer to use at home, and now you need to find the best price for it.
Albertson, D., & Meadows, C., III. (2011). Situated topic complexity in interactive video retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 62(9), 1676-1695.
Task type: Basic
Task type definition: "contained one subtopic, based on either visual or textual information alone" (p.1682)
Tasks:
1 1. Find a video segment from the NASA Connect program Plane Weather.
2 2. Find a video segment that shows blue skies.
Task type: Complex
Task type definition: "contained multiple subtopics, all of which based on textual or visual information alone" (p.1682)
Tasks:
1 3. Find a student activity or exercise that explores the Fibonacci sequence, and next a classroom activity that teaches students how to measure shadows and the size of angles.
2 4. Find two segments that show different types of clouds.
Task type: Combination
Task type definition: "contained one subtopic involving both textual and visual information" (p.1682)
Tasks:
1 5. Find one segment about the surface of Mars; the segment must show an exploratory robot moving along or setting on the surface.
2 6. Find one segment about early flight navigation, which actually shows older footage of a flying airplane.
Task type: Combo-complex
Task type definition: "contained more than one subtopic involving both textual and visual information" (p.1682)
Tasks:
1 7. Find a segment about GPS technologies and another segment showing an actual radar screen used by air-traffic controllers.
2 8. Find a segment about airflow and drag of automobiles and another segment showing a red car involved in a simulated crash test.
Mirel, B., Tonks, J.S., Song, J., Meng, F., Xuan, W., & Ameziane, R. (2013). Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 64(5), 874-892.
Task type: Search-and-analysis task
Task type definition: The "search-and-analysis is complex and open-ended, not a straightforward fact-reporting situation. It has no one set of "right" methods, no predefined starting and stopping points, and no single right solution (Kumpulainen & Jarvelin, 2010)." (p.877)
Tasks:
1 Students were asked to "find and explain how interactions between genes related to the P2X receptor might influence a complex disease... For the first deliverable, students focused on at least three diseases and recorded explanations about how P2X-related genes influence each disease." (p.877)
2 Students were asked to "find and explain how interactions between genes related to the P2X receptor might influence a complex disease... For the second deliverable, students focused on one of the diseases they had recorded in the first deliverable and explained in greater depth the causal, contextual, and conditional relationships and biological events associated with P2X-related genes and the disease." (p.877)
Berenci, E., Carpineto, C., Giannini, V., & Mizzaro, S. (2000). Effectiveness of keyword-based display and selection of retrieval results for interactive searches. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 3(3), 249-260.
Task type: Not specified
Task type definition: Not specified
Tasks:
1 Status of nuclear proliferation treaties: violations and monitoring. (p.255)
2 Where are the nuclear plants in the U.S. and what has been their rate of production? (p.255)
3 Why is the infant mortality rate in the United States higher that it is in most other industrialized nations? (p.255)
4 Steps taken by church, governments, community, civic organizations to halt carnage among youths engaged in drug or gang warfare. (p.255)
5 Is there data available to suggest that capital punishment is a deterrent to crime? (p.255)
6 What controls, agreement, technological advances or equipment are now in use or planned to assist in combating terrorism? (p.255)
Belkin, N.J., Cool, C., Kelly, D., Kim, G., Kim, J., Lee, H., Muresan, G., Tang, M.-C., & Yuan, X.-J. (2003). Query length in interaction information retrieval. Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 205-212.
Task type: Short answers (quantity)
Task type definition: "Find any N short answers to a question, to which there are multiple answers of the same type." (p.210)
Tasks:
1 You are traveling from the Netherlands, and want to bring some typical food products as gifts for your friends. What are three kinds of food products from the Netherlands that you are not allowed to bring into the US? (p.210)
2 You are concerned with privacy issues related to electronic information and would like to know what laws have been passed by the US Congress regarding these issues. Identify three such laws.
3 You are not sure about the safety of genetically engineered foods, and would like to find more information and research on this topic. Name four potential types of safety problems that have been raised. (p.210)
4 You are interested in learning more about what measures the US government has taken since 2001 to prevent Mad-Cow Disease. Identify three such measures. (p.210)
5 Name/find three research programs/projects that investigate the treatment/causes of dwarfism. (p.211)
Task type: Website
Task type definition: "Find any N websites that meet the need specified in the task statement." (p.210)
Tasks:
1 A friend has a private well which is the family's only source of drinking water. Locate a US publication, which contains guidelines for the maintenance of safe water standards for private well use. (p.210)
2 You are planning a cycling expedition along the Silk Road in Central Asia. Find a website that is a good source information about health precautions should you take. (p.211)
3 You are planning to travel to the northeast territories of India and wonder if there are any problems/restrictions for tourists. Find a website that is a good source of information about such problems/restrictions. (p.211)
Rose, D.E., & Levinson, D. (2004). Understanding user goals in Web search. Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web (WWW '04), 13-19.
Vakkari, P. (2010). Exploratory searching as conceptual exploration. Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Human-Computer interaction and Information Retrieval. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/ryenw/hcir2010/docs/papers/vakkari_fp10.pdf.
Vakkari, P., & Huuskonen, S. (2012). Search effort degrades search output but improves task outcome. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 63(4), 657-670.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: "a complex task, which included learning and investigative activities. Marchionini (2006) calls searching for these purposes an exploratory search" (p.668)
Algon, J. (1997). Classification of tasks, steps, and information-related behaviors of individuals on project teams. In Vakkari, P., Savolainen, R., & Dervin, B. (eds.), Information Seeking in Context: Proceedings of an International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 1996 August 14-16, Tampere, Finland. London: Taylor Graham.
Kelly, D., Shah, C., Sugimoto, C., Bailey, E., Clemens, R., Irvine, A., Johnson, N., Ke, W., Oh, S., Poljakova, A., Rodriguez, M., van Noord, M., & Zhang, Y. (2008). Method bias? The effects of performance feedback on users' evaluations of an interactive IR system. IIiX '08, Information Interaction in Context, pp. 75-82.
Task type: Search
Task type definition: No definition was provided
Tasks:
1 Imagine that you are enrolled in an environmental science course and you are interested in learning more about tropical storms (hurricanes and typhoons). It seems that tropical storms are becoming more destructive and you decide to investigate past storms. Your instructor asks you to prepare a short, 5-page paper investigating past tropical storms. Your instructor asks you to use historical newspaper articles as your sources of information and to collect comprehensive information on different tropical storms and impacts of each storm. Specifically, your goal is to identify different tropical storms that have caused property damage and/or loss of life, and to find as much information as possible about each storm.
Kammerer, Y., & Gerjets, P. (2012). Effects of search interface and Internet-specific epistemic beliefs on source evaluations during Web search for medical information: An eye-tracking study. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(1), 83-97.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: N/A
Tasks:
1 Seek information on the WWW about two competing, controversially discussed therapies (radon therapy and infliximab therapy) for Bechterews disease (i.e. a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease affecting the spine) in order to give informed advice to a fictitious friend who was recently diagnosed with the disease. pp. 88
Melguizo, M.C.P., Vidya, U., & Oostendorp, H. (2012). Seeking information online: The influence of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information gathering tasks. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(1), 59-70.
Task type: Information gathering
Task type definition: N/A
Tasks:
1 How many millions of inhabitants of Zambia live in cities?
2 Which river empties into the Indian Ocean and which country is its source?
3 The tallest of all land-living animal species lives in Zambia. What is its closest relative and what are the Latin names of the two animals?
Kaki, M. (2005). Findex: Search result categories help users when document rankings fail. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI.
Dumais, S., Cutrell, E., and Chen, H. (2001). Optimizing Search by Showing Results in Context. In Proc. CHI 2001, 277-284.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: N/A
Tasks:
1 Find the homepage for the band They Might Be Giants.
2 Find profiles of the women of NASA.
Aula, A. (2003). Query Formulation in Web Information Search. Proc. IADIS International Conference WWW/Internet 2003, Volume I, 403-410.
Task type: Exploratory search
Task type definition: The searchers aim is to obtain a general idea of the search topic or possibly to retrieve a couple of documents as an example. p. 6
Tasks:
1 Find material in which Kaj-Erik Relander comments the accusations presented in the Sonera book.
2 Find information about different treatments for childrens otitis and the benefits and drawbacks of them.
3 Find news articles that tell about the demonstrations against the Iraq war.
4 Find a web page in which the names for the four lobes of the human cortex are given and examples of the processes that different lobes participate in.
5 Find information about the economical situation of the Amazon Books during its history.
6 Search for information about the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, the causes of it, and its environmental effects.
7 You are planning to purchase a palmtop computer. Find material that helps you to choose between the brands and models on market by considering their available memory, size, and price.
8 Find information about what needs to be done to the grass in the spring in order to guarantee its growth.
9 Find studies that deal with the global warming and the reasons for it.
10 What is the World Health Organization doing to stop river blindness in Africa?
Task type: Fact-finding
Task type definition: No definition was provided
Tasks:
1 Which movies has Kati Outinen acted in?
2 In which year was the Finlandia award given for the first time?
3 Who are the current members of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?
4 How large were the economical losses in the September 11th 2001 terrorist attack directed at Pentagon?
5 How much blood, on average, goes through the heart in one minute?
6 Which were the most profitable movies of the Miramax film corporation in 2002?
7 Which virus causes the pneumonia spreading in Eastern-Asia?
8 Kari Krkkinen is a Member of Parliament. To which party does he belong?
9 How old is the CEO of Microsoft, Bill Gates?
10 Search for a copy of the multinational treaty banning land mines that was signed shortly after Princess Dianas death, the one that the US and Finland refused to sign.
Chen, H., & Dumais, S. (2000). Bringing order to the Web: Automatically categorizing search results. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 145-152.
Task type: Search tasks
Task type definition: "we selected tasks that had reasonably unambiguous answers in the top 100 returned pages (a kind of known-item search). The tasks varied in difficulty - 17 had answers in the top 20 items returned (on the first page in the List interface), and 13 had answers between ranks 21 and 100." (p.149)
Chung, W., Zhang, Y., Huang, Z., Wang, G., Ong, T.-H., & Chen, H. (2004). Internet searching and browsing in a multilingual world: An experiment on the Chinese Business Intelligence Portal (CBizPort). Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 55(9), 818-831.
Task type: Search task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Find two cities in mainland China that Motorola has set up its manufacturing operations. (p.823)
Task type: Browse task
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 Describe, in a number of distinct themes, the economic impacts of removing trade barriers between mainland China and Taiwan towards Hong Kong. (p.823)
Vakkari, P. (2000). Cognition and changes of search terms and tactics during task performance: a longitudinal study. Proceedings of the RIAO2000 conference (pp. 894-907). Paris: C.I.D.
Rieh, S. Y. (2004). Design and evaluation of support for query reformulation in Web searching: a case study of Excite ZOOM-IN. In Paper presented at the Workshop of measuring Web effectiveness of the 13th international world Wide Web conference, New York.
Fidel, R. (1990). Searchers selection of search keys: III. Searching styles. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(7), 515-527.
Nicholas, D., Huntington, P., Williams, P., & Dobrowolski, T. (2004). Re-appraising information seeking behaviour in a digital environment: Bouncers, checkers, returnees and the like. Journal of Documentation, 60(1), 24-39.
Kibirige, H.M. and DePalo, L. (2000). The internet as a source of academic research information: findings of two pilot studies, Information Technology and Libraries, 19, 11-16.
Ellis, D., Cox, D., and Hall, K. (1993). A comparison of the information-seeking patterns of researchers in the physical and social sciences, Journal of Documentation, 49, 356-369.
Tenopir, C., Wang, P.L., Zhang, Y., Simmons, B., and Pollard, R. (2008). Academic users' interactions with ScienceDirect in search tasks: affective and cognitive behaviors, Information Processing and Management, 44, 105-121.
Tombros, A., Ruthven, I. and Jose, J.M. (2005). How users assess web pages for information-seeking. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 56(4), 327-344.
Task type: Background search
Task type definition: "In this task the participants were asked to find general background information on a topic, essentially as much information as possible on a topic. In our study the participants were asked to find information on the demographics of the Internet." (p.331)
Tasks:
1 You are considering a career as a web-page designer and have an interview next week with a company you really want to work for. The position will involve designing sites to allow local companies to sell their products on-line. You realize, however, that you know little about who actually uses the Internet. To impress your future employers you think it is a good idea to get some information on what kind of people have Internet access so you can discuss how you would design sites to attract these groups of people.
2 "You are considering a career as a web-page designer and have an interview next week with a company you really want to work for. The position will involve designing sites to allow local companies to sell their products on-line. You realize, however, that you know little about who actually uses the Internet. To impress your future employers you think it is a good idea to get some information on what kind of people have Internet access so you can discuss how you would design sites to attract these groups of people." (p.330)
Task type: Decision task
Task type definition: "In this task the participants had to gather information and make a decision based on the information found while searching. The participants, in this case, were asked to decide on the best hi-fi speakers available in their own price range." (p.331)
Task type: Many items task
Task type definition: "In this task the participants were asked to compile a list of items. This task specifically asked the participants to compile a list of interesting things to do over a weekend in the city of Kyoto." (p.331)
Rieh, S.Y. and Hilligoss, B. (2007). College students' credibility judgments in the information seeking process. In Metzger, M. and Flanagin, A. (Eds.) Digital Media, Youth, and Credibility. MA: The MIT Press.
Task type: Information seeking
Task type definition: purposive seeking for information as a consequence of a need to satisfy some goal
Pan, B., Hembrooke, H., Joachims, T., Lorigo, L., Gay, G., and Granka, L. (2007). In Google we trust: users' decisions on rank, position, and relevance. Journal of CMC 12, 801-823.
Task type: Navigation
Task type definition: "...navigational tasks involve searching for a particular Web page (Broder, 2002)."
Tasks:
1 Find the homepage of Michael Jordan, the statistician.
2 Find the page displaying the route map for Greyhound buses.
3 Find the homepage of the 1000 Acres Dude Ranch.
4 Find the homepage for graduate housing at Carnegie Mellon University
5 Find the homepage of Emerilthe chef who has a television cooking program.
Task type: Informational
Task type definition: "Informational tasks require finding a particular fact..."
Tasks:
1 Where is the tallest mountain in New York located?
2 With the heavy coverage of the democratic presidential primaries, you are excited to cast your vote for a candidate. When are/were democratic presidential primaries in New York?
3 Which actor starred as the main character in the original Time Machine movie?
4 A friend told you that Mr. Cornell used to live close to campusnear University and Steward Ave. Does anybody live in his house now? If so, who?
5 What is the name of the researcher who discovered the first modern antibiotic?
Vakkari, P., Pennanen, M., & Serola, S. (2003). Changes of search terms and tactics while writing a research proposal: A longitudinal case study. Information Processing and Management, 39(3), 445-463.
Ruthven, I., Lalmas, M., & van Rijsbergen, C. J. (2003). Incorporating user search behavior into relevance feedback. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(6), 529-549.
Task type: Simulated work-task situations
Task type definition: "First, they are aimed at promoting a simulated information need in a subject. That is, the simulated situation should engage the subjects in the search by the identification of the subject with the situation. Second, the simulated situations position the search within a realistic context. This allows the experimental subject to provide his or her own interpretation of what information is required and allows the subject to develop the information need naturally." p. 3
Tasks:
1 Several valuable paintings and other works of art in a local Glasgow museum have been discovered to be fakes4. The museums spokesman claims that art crime in particular fraud is becoming more common. He also claims that it is difficult to distinguish deliberate crime from genuine mistakes made by people selling works of art. You wonder if he is correct or whether these are excuses. You think more information on art crime, and on genuine cases of art fraud, can help you decide if the spokesman is correct.
Jansen, B. J. (2005). Seeking and implementing automated assistance during the search process. Information Process and Management, 41(4), 909-928.
Task type: Search
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 "...search on a given topic in order to prepare a report and the TREC definition of relevance judgment for TREC documents." pp. 916
Ramirez, G., & de Vries, A. (2006). Relevant contextual features in XML retrieval. Proceedings of Information Interaction in Context (IIiX) 2006, 56-65.
Task type: Simulated search
Task type definition: definition not provided
Tasks:
1 Your department has produced a Linux-program and it is being discussed whether to release it under a public license such as GNU or GPL (General Public License). Therefore, you have been asked to find information about the implications of releasing the code under a public license as an open source program. Find, for instance, information that discusses different licensing schemes or articles about the impact of open source programs.
Task type: Search
Task type definition: n/a
Tasks:
1 To create their own search task, the searchers were given a description of the collection's content and an example of a search task. By filling a questionnaire, searchers had to specify (1) what are they looking for, (2) what is the motivation of the topic (i.e. why are they searching the information, what problem can be solved with the information and in what context did the problem arise), and (3) what would an ideal answer look like. In order to guarantee that topics were covered by the collection, the test persons were asked to present two different information needs before the experiment.
Larsen, B., Malik, S., & Tombros, A. (2008). A comparison of interactive and ad-hoc relevance assessments. Lecture Notes in Computer science, 4862, 348-358.
Task type: Decision making
Task type definition: n/a
Task type: Fact finding
Task type definition: n/a
Task type: Information gathering
Task type definition: n/a
Pharo, N., & Krahn, A. (2011). The effect of task type on preferred element types in an XML-based retrieval system. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 62(9), 1717-1726.
Task type: Fact-finding
Task type definition: "Tasks where the objective is to find 'specific accurate or correct information or physical things that can be grouped into classes or categories for easy reference'" (p.1720)
Tasks:
1 A friend has just sent an e-mail from an Internet caf in the southern USA where she is on a hiking trip. She tells you that she has just stepped into an anthill of small red ants and has a large number of painful bites on her leg. She wants to know what species of ants they are likely to be, how dangerous they are and what she can do about the bites. What will you tell her?
2 You enjoy eating mushrooms, especially chanterelles, and a friend who is an amateur mushroom picker indicates that he has found a good source, and invites you along. He warns you that chanterelles can be confused with a deadly species for which there is no known antidote. You decide that you must know what you are looking for before you going mushroom picking. What species was he referring to? How can you tell the difference?
3 In one of your previous Web experiences, you came across a long list of castles that covered the globe. At the time, you noted that some are called castles, while others are called fortresses, and Canada unexpectedly has castles while Denmark has also fortresses! So now you wonder: what is the difference between a fortress and a castle? So you check the Web for a clarification, and to find a good example of a castle and fortress in Canada and Denmark.
Task type: Information-gathering
Task type definition: "Tasks 'where the objective is to collect miscellaneous information about a topic'" (p.1720)
Tasks:
1 A close friend is planning to buy a car for the first time, but is worried about fuel costs and the impact on the environment. The friend has asked for help in learning about options for vehicles that are more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly. What types of different types of engines, manufacturers and models of cars might be of interest to your friend? What would be the benefits of using such vehicles?
2 Friends are planning to build a new house and have heard that using solar energy panels for heating can save a lot of money. Since they do not know anything about home heating and the issues involved, they have asked for your help.You are uncertain as well, and do some research to identify some issues that need to be considered in deciding between more conventional methods of home heating and solar panels.
3 You just joined the citizens advisory committee for the city of St. Johns, Newfoundland.With the increase in fuel costs, the city council is contemplating supplementing its power with alternative energy. Tidal power and wind power are being discussed among your fellow committee members. As you want to be fully informed when you attend the next meeting, you research the pros and cons of each type.
Airio, E. (2008). Who benefits from CLIR in web retrieval? Journal of Documentation, 64(5), 760-778.
Task type: Query tasks
Task type definition: Not defined
Tasks:
1 You have a German friend, who has lived in Finland for three years. He and his family have converted to Islam a year ag