Meeting Time: Thursdays, 2:00p-4:45p
Location: Manning 117
Instructor: Colin Post
Office: Manning 016 (the "PhDungeon")
Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays, 2:00p-4:00p, or by appointment
In this class, we will cover some of the fundamental principles for how computing and networked technologies function, from both conceptual and technical perspectives. The impetus behind this (more than just 'computers are cool') is that interfacing with digital technologies is an increasingly large component of all manner of cultural heritage work, and thus everyone entering the profession should have at least some applicable knowledge of how these systems function. Beyond just a base knowledge of IT, this course also aims to cultivate critical thinking about the social, political, and cultural implications of information systems (with a particular emphasis on those systems in the cultural heritage field).
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
Honor Code: All students are required to follow the Honor Code:
As a condition of joining the Carolina community, Carolina students pledge “not to lie, cheat, or steal” and to hold themselves, as members of the Carolina community, to a high standard of academic and non-academic conduct while both on and off Carolina’s campus. This commitment to academic integrity, ethical behavior, personal responsibility and civil discourse exemplifies the “Carolina Way”, and this commitment is codified in both the University's Honor Code and in other University student conduct-related policies.
Special Needs: If you feel that you may need an accommodation for a disability or have any other special need, please make an appointment to discuss this with me. I will best be able to address special circumstances if I know about them early in the semester. My office hours and contact information are listed at the beginning of this syllabus.
"In support of the University’s diversity goals and the mission of the School of Information and Library Science, SILS embraces diversity as an ethical and societal value. We broadly define diversity to include race, gender, national origin, ethnicity, religion, social class, age, sexual orientation and physical and learning ability. As an academic community committed to preparing our graduates to be leaders in an increasingly multicultural and global society we strive to:
The statement represents a commitment of resources to the development and maintenance of an academic environment that is open, representative, reflective and committed to the concepts of equity and fairness."
~The faculty of the School of Information and Library Science (http://sils.unc.edu/about/diversity)
|H (95 - 100%)||The student demonstrates clear excellence in class performance, contributing insightfully to class discussions and turning in work that exceeds expectations.|
|P (74 - 94.9%)||The student performs at a satisfactory level for graduate work. The student demonstrates a grasp on course material and turns in consistently good work.|
|L (60 - 73.9%)||The student performs below the expected level for graduate work. The student struggles to grasp course material and turns in consistently poor work. However, the student still demonstrates some growth in the area of the course, and evidences the ability to apply this knowledge, albeit in a manner inadequate compared to graduate level expectations.|
|F (0 - 59.9%)||For whatever reasons, an unacceptable performance. The F grade indicates that the student's performance in the required exercises has revealed almost no understanding of the course content. A grade of F should warrant an adviser's questioning whether the student may suitably register for further study in the discipline before remedial work is undertaken.|
|A (94 - 100%);
A- (90 - 93.9%)
|Mastery of course content at the highest level of attainment that can reasonably be expected of students at a given stage of development. The A grade states clearly that the student has shown such outstanding promise in the aspect of the discipline under study that he/she may be strongly encouraged to continue.|
|B+ (87 - 89.9%);
B (84 - 86.9%);
B- (80 - 83.9%)
|Strong performance demonstrating a high level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The B grade states that the student has shown solid promise in the aspect of the discipline under study.|
C (74 - 76.9%);
C- (70 - 73.9%)
|A totally acceptable performance demonstrating an adequate level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The C grade states that, while not yet showing any unusual promise, the student may continue to study in the discipline with reasonable hope of intellectual development.|
|D+ (67 - 69.9%);
D (64 - 66.9%);
|A marginal performance in the required exercises demonstrating a minimal passing level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The D grade states that the student has given no evidence of prospective growth in the discipline; an accumulation of D grades should be taken to mean that the student would be well advised not to continue in the academic field.|
|F (0 - 59.9%)||For whatever reasons, an unacceptable performance. The F grade indicates that the student's performance in the required exercises has revealed almost no understanding of the course content. A grade of F should warrant an adviser's questioning whether the student may suitably register for further study in the discipline before remedial work is undertaken.|
These definitions are from: http://www.unc.edu/faculty/faccoun/reports/2000-01/R2001GradingStandardsAddendum.htm
Regular attendance for this class is expected, and constitutes the foundation for a student’s success in the course. Class meetings give us an opportunity to discuss the readings, develop key concepts, and build knowledge together. Please let me know ahead of time if you expect to miss any class sessions. I am generally understanding and flexible. I count an absence as missing half or more of a class session. For students who miss more than 3 class sessions, I will detract 5% from your final grade for each additional absence.
All assignments are expected to be turned in on time by the date specified on the syllabus—unless you make arrangements with me for an extension before the due date. Late assignments will be marked down 25% for each day following the due date. In other words, assignments turned in more than 4 days late will not be accepted for any credit.
Note on extensions: I am generally lenient and understanding, so if you have extenuating circumstances that you expect will prevent you from turning in an assignment on time, see me as soon as possible to discuss an extension. If you fail to turn the assignment in by the date of the extension, the above policy will apply.
For complete descriptions, see below. I will also post copies of the assignment descriptions and rubrics on Sakai.
It is very important that you both attribute your sources and avoid excessive use of quotes (see separate document called "In Your Own Words"). Be aware of the University of North Carolina policy on plagiarism. Your written work must be original. Ask if you have any doubts about what this means.
All cases of plagiarism (unattributed quotation or paraphrasing) of anyone else's work, whether from someone else's answers to homework or from published materials, will be officially reported and dealt with according to UNC policies (Instrument of Student Judicial Governance, Section II.B.1. and III.D.2, http://instrument.unc.edu).
We will be drawing heavily on the following texts. However, How Computers Work is available on reserve at the SILS Library, and the other two titles are freely available as ebooks via UNC libraries (links provided), so you do not necessarily need to purchase your own analog copies. You may find it more convenient or preferable to purchase your own copies, in which case I would recommend searching for new or used copies on vialibri. I have also put an order for How Computers Work in to the student book store (but not the other two titles).
In addition to How Computers Work, many of the other weekly readings will be drawn from books held on reserve at the SILS library. You can request to use all of these books at the SILS Library on the first floor of Manning Hall (behind the SILS Library help desk).
For the weekly readings, the following labels indicate where specific course readings can be located:
R = Reserves at SILS Library in Manning Hall
C = Course site in Sakai (under the 'Resources' tab)
O = Online through UNC license. NOTE: Accessing these materials can require you either to use a computer with a UNC IP address or visit the associated sites through a UNC proxy server. See: Off Campus Access.
W = Publicly accessible Web
Another resource that you might find interesting is Computer Science Unplugged (developed for primary school, but also informative for adults).
This class is not focused on specific applications. However, it is often helpful to know what software is available to support various activities that relate to the topics of the course. For a directory of tools, see: http://coptr.digipres.org/
Digital technologies function through (layers upon layers) of representation. What we see on the screen is a representation of many underlying processes, both material and logical. Throughout the course, we'll be delving into these many layers in detail, but first we'll need to enter through the interface, the surface layer through which we actually work with digital information.
We'll also discuss all of the boring (but necessary) mechanics of the class: the structure of the semester, the assignments and expectations, the topics we'll cover, and why the topics are important to understand when managing digital collections.
O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Interface (149-152)]
C - Drucker, Johanna. Graphesis: Visual Forms of Knowledge Production. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014. [Read: Interface and Interpretation (138-179)]
The historian and theorist of technology Melvin Kranzberg has said that "technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral." Part of what this quotation suggests is that technology is always and already embedded in social, historical, and cultural contexts. No technology is intrinsically good or bad, but technologies can be put towards both righteous and nefarious ends. These many contextual dimensions inform how technologies develop, get used, and become obsolete. Throughout the semester, we'll be considering social, cultural, political, and economic aspects of computers, and digital technologies more broadly. This week, we'll lay some of the foundations for thinking about technology through these lenses.
O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Algorithm (15-20)]
W, R - Lessig, Lawrence. Code: Version 2.0. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2006. http://codev2.cc/ [Read: Code is Law (1-9), Regulating Code (61-80)]
C - Tenner, Edward. "Ever Since Frankenstein." In Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences, 3-32. New York, NY: Knopf, 1996.
C - Winner, Langdon. "Do Artifacts Have Politics?" Daedalus 109, no. 1 (1980): 121-36.
This week, we'll take a broad historical overview of the development of computing technologies and information systems. As we've already discussed, these systems do not develop in a vacuum, and Ceruzzi's text will give us a strong sense of the historical factors (people, funding, imaginaries, etc.) that shaped the field.
In class, we'll be thinking about the implications of this history for the interoperability of systems. Cultural heritage institutions (especially archives, which work with heterogeneous digital collections) need to make wildly different systems work together. Taking a look at the broader history of computing technologies will help us to understand the challenges (and benefits!) of achieving interoperability.
O - Ceruzzi, Paul. A History of Modern Computing. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. [Read the whole book]
Now we're getting to the real heart of what makes a computer tick (excuse the mixed metaphor!). We'll look at the main hardware and software components, and the relative roles and relationships among these main components.
O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Computing Power (55-63)].
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Building Blocks and System Architecture (113-117)]
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How Motherboards Conduct a Symphony of Data (43-51), The Origins of Computer DNA (132-137, 150-153), How a PC Keeps It Cool (186-187)]
As cultural heritage professionals, bits are the stuff we really care about. The digital objects in our collections are all made up of bits, and the absolute baseline of digital preservation is to ensure that the bits themselves remain safe and secure. We'll consider how bits are stored, processed, made renderable, and (gasp) corrupted.
O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Memory (184-192)]
C, R - Kernighan, Brian W. "Bits, Bytes, and Representation of Information." In D Is for Digital: What a Well-Informed Person Should Know About Computers and Communications, 21-34. DisforDigital.net, 2012.
C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Bytes and Hex (180-189)]
W - Rosenthal, David S. H, Daniel C. Rosenthal, Ethan L. Miller, Ian F. Adams, Mark W. Storer, and Erez Zadok. "The Economics of Long-Term Digital Storage." Paper presented at Memory of the World in the Digital Age. September 26-28, 2012, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. http://www.lockss.org/locksswp/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/unesco2012.pdf
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [The Ghostly Legos of Computing (8-17), How Computers Remember (19-27), How a Little Microprocessor Does Big Things (29-41), How the Workaday Floppy Drive Ruled (138-139), How Little Bits Add Up to Big Changes (158-159), How Small Mutations Pay Off Big (162-167), How Devices Capture Light (216-217), How Printers Put Data in Our Hands (322-335)]
Bits are the stuff of digital objects, but they do not mean much if we cannot represent these in the form of text, image, audio, video, and all other manner of cultural mateial. This week and next, we'll examine how bits get represented in many different ways.
O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Codecs (48-52)]
W - Rothenberg, Jeff. "Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Information." Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, 1999. http://www.clir.org/pubs/archives/ensuring.pdf (2-11)]
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How Applications Works So you Can Play (75-93), How Computers Create New Worlds (98-103), How Prime Numbers Protect Prime Secrets (124-125), How File Compression Makes Files Smaller (160-161), How Computers Capture Memories (194-199), How Codes Keep Track of Everything (Everything!) (220-221), How Computers Tickle Your Ears (240-247)]
Our journey into the world of representation information continues.
C, O - DeRose, Steven J., David G. Durand, Elli Mylonas, and Allen H. Renear. “What Is Text, Really?” ACM SIGDOC Asterisk Journal of Computer Documentation 21, no. 3 ( 1997): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1145/264842.264843. [Also take a look at "Further Context for 'What is Text, Really?'", also in Sakai]
C - Haralambous, Yannis, and P. Scott Horne. Fonts & Encodings. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, 2007. [Introduction (1-17); Before Unicode (27-52 (skimming 29-50 to get an idea of the various types of encoding)); Characters, glyphs, bytes: An introduction to Unicode (53-93 (skimming 62-93 to get an idea of the complexity and scope of Unicode)); Properties of Unicode characters (95-125 (skim to become familiar with categories of character properties)); Fonts and Web Pages (315-366, familiarize yourself with the main ways that fonts are identified and represented on the Web)]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Information Content (108-111); Data Sharing (415-423)]
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How the Impact Printer Was Right on the Spot (142-143), How eInk Puts Words on Your eReader (174-175), How Optical Character Recognition Works (222-223), How Printers Make Cookie Cutter Text (318-319), How Outline Fonts Set the Imagination Free (320-321)]
What do web addresses, the file names for your digital vacation photos, and quick response codes all have in common? They're all digital object identifiers! We'll discuss the role that identifiers play in managing digital collections, differences between local and global identifiers, and why it's important (but difficult) for identifiers to be persistent over time.
W - Campbell, Douglas. "Identifying the Identifiers." Paper presented at the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Singapore, August 27-31, 2007. http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/index.php/pubs/article/download/868/864W - Hilse, Hans-Werner, and Jochen Kothe. Implementing Persistent Identifiers: Overview of Concepts, Guidelines and Recommendations. London: Consortium of European Research Libraries, 2006. http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/edoc/ah/2006/hilse_kothe/urn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Agbv%3A7-isbn-90-6984-508-3-8.pdf [Pay particular attention to the following pages: 1-7, 40-48]
W - Lyons, Susan. "Persistent Identification of Electronic Documents and the Future of Footnotes." Law Library Journal 97, no. 4 (2005): 681-94. http://www.aallnet.org/products/pub_llj_v97n04/2005-42.pdf
Related Video of Possible Interest: Van de Sompel, Herbert, Robert Sanderson, and Michael Nelson. "Memento: Time Travel for the Web." Coalition for Networked Information Fall 2009 Membership Meeting, December 14-15, 2009, Washington, DC. http://vimeo.com/8365394 [See especially the first 15 minutes, in which Van de Sompel articulates the resource referencing problems being addressed by Memento.]
Switching from one operating system (OS) to another (from Mac to Windows, for example), you realize just how much the OS shapes your interaction with the machine. Beyond the interface, though, the OS is responsible for much more. We'll consider in more depth what the OS does and differences between various OS's. We'll think about the implications of all of this for managing digital collections. For instance, software is often dependent upon a particular OS. So what should you do when you have older software in your collection that you can no longer run on current OS's??? Stay tuned.
W - Harper, Richard, Eno Thereska, Siân Lindley, Richard Banks, Phil Gosset, William Odom, Gavin Smyth, and Eryn Whitworth. “What Is a File?” Technical Report. Seattle: Microsoft Research Ltd, 2011. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/MSR-TR-2011-109.pdf.
C, R - St. Amant, Robert. "Operating Systems: Working Together." In Computing for Ordinary Mortals, 108-130. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
W - Cocciolo, Anthony. "Unix Commands and Batch Processing for the Reluctant Librarian or Archivist." Code4Lib Journal 23 (2014). http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/9158
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [Operating Systems and Other Software and The Devolution of the OS (61-63)]
Welcome back from break! We'll jump right back into things by discussing how you actually get bits in (or out!) of a computer. If you've ever used a USB drive or sent an e-mail, you're already an expert at this, but we'll think through what is actually going on when we're moving bits around through both technical and socio-cultural lenses.
C - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Import/Export (119-124)]
C, R - Garrido, José M., and Richard Schlesinger. Principles of Modern Operating Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008. [The I/O System (219-244)]
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Networked Computing Infrastructure and The Internet (118-131); Two Host Architectures and Three-Tier Client-Server Architecture (140-148); Network Architecture and Protocols (517-538)]
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [The Origins of Computer DNA (144-149), How USB Really is Universal (156-157), How Networks Tie Computers Together (256-265), How the Internet Brings Us the World (267-285), How the Web Puts it All at your Fingertips (288-293), How Email Outraces Snail Mail (300-301)]
From web browsers to the calculators on our phones, we use all kinds of software to do all kinds of things, both grand and minute. We'll look at how software gets programmed and interpreted through myriad interactions with both humans and machines.
C - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read Programmability (224-228)]
C, R - Kernighan, Brian W. "Programming and Programming Languages." D Is for Digital: What a Well-Informed Person Should Know About Computers and Communications, 65-83. DisforDigital.net, 2012.
C, R - St. Amant, Robert. "Programming: Putting Plans Into Action." In Computing for Ordinary Mortals, 81-107. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013.
B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How Words are Stitched into Programs (65-73), How Security Software Fights Off Invaders (112-117)]
We'll take a step back from computers, software, and bits to examine the industries, organizations, entities, and networks that shape how all of this information technology gets created, distributed, and used. We'll especially focus on the role and position of cultural heritage institutions in this broader landscape. How do these other entities affect us, and how do we also exert influence?
O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [ Read: Internationalization (153-160)]
C - Rinehart, Richard, and Jon Ippolito. Re-Collection: Art, New Media, and Social Memory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014. [Read: Death by Technology (31-46)]
C, O, R - Messerschmitt, David G. and Clemens Szyperski. Software Ecosystem: Understanding an Indispensable Technology and Industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005. [Read: Software Supply Industry (171-197)] http://www.netlibrary.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=100089
In the final few weeks of the course, we'll think about computing technologies and informaiton systems at an organizational level, specifically in cultural heritage institutional contexts. How do we take all of the great knowledge that we've gained and apply it to making informed decisions about our digital collections?
C, R - Axelrod, Robert, and Michael D. Cohen. Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1999. [Introduction (1-31); Conclusion (152-160)]
W - Lee, Cal. "Never Optimize: Building & Managing a Robust Cyberinfrastructure." History and Theory of Infrastructure: Distilling Lessons for New Scientific Cyberinfrastructures, Ann Arbor, MI, September 28 - October 1, 2006. http://ils.unc.edu/callee/never-optimize.pdf
We'll continue thinking about how we make informed decisions about our digital collections, focusing on the architecture and design of information systems. How do our various information systems fit together, or perhaps more frequently, fail to fit together? Building standards is one approach to overcoming disjunctions between various information systems, but these processes are embedded in contested political, social, and cultural contexts. That is to say, 'standards' are complicated affairs, deserving close attention and critical consideration, but there are no easy answers or straightforward conlcusions here!
O - Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. [Read: The Internet in the Arena of International Standards (147-179)]. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/lib/unc/detail.action?docID=3338844
C - Cargill, Carl F. "A History of Standards" and "A User Perspective on Technical Standardization." In Open Systems Standardization: A Business Approach, 14-25, 89-96. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
C - Seacord, Robert, Daniel Plakosh, and Grace Lewis. "The Legacy Crisis," "Understanding the Legacy System," and "Recommendations." Modernizing Legacy Systems: Software Technologies, Engineering Processes and Business Practices, 1-17, 57-67, 303-308. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley, 2003.
We'll take this final week to wrap things up and reflect on what we've learned. We'll also consider the role that cultural heritage institutions can (and should??) play in the larger information society.
W - Lynch, Clifford. “Stewardship in the ‘Age of Algorithms.’” First Monday 22, no. 12 (December 2, 2017). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/8097.
W - Van de Sompel, Herbert, and Michael L. Nelson. "Reminiscing about 15 Years of Interoperability Efforts." D-Lib Magazine 21, no. 11/12 (2015). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november15/vandesompel/11vandesompel.html
You will be expected to come to class each week, having completed the readings and being fully prepared to discuss. While the readings and the class sessions will cover a lot of specific pieces of information, I am especially interested in your thoughts, insights, and opinions. How might a particular issue raised in the readings manifest in your professional life? Do you disagree with anything raised in the readings?
By Wednesday (at the latest) each week, I will post a few questions for us to consider in the Forums section of the Sakai site. You should look these over and be prepared to discuss these points in class, but you are NOT required to submit any responses. However, I will encourage all of us to add thoughts, notes, and links to relevant resources or articles during class in these weekly forum posts. Especially if you are shy, or are less compelled to contribute to class discussions verbally, you can still participate by writing things in this space.
Weekly Paper Assignments (50%)
Each week, you will write a one page (single spaced, 12 pt font, 1" margins) response to a prompt related to the concerns of that week. I will post the prompt after class, and you will have until 5pm on Saturday to turn in the assignment to the drop box on Sakai. You will complete 10 total assignments, meaning that you can choose 2 weeks at any point in the semester to skip the assignment.
These prompts will ask you to consider an issue related to both the readings and the class discussion for that week. In all cases, though, there will be no 'right' answer. Rather, the questions will be open-ended, and will require you to reflect and weigh in, supporting your answer with reasoned arguments.
Each assignment will be graded out of 10 points, for a total of 100 points over all 10 assignmets.I will grade assignments based on a combination of writing (clarity and precision of expression), original thinking and insight, and a demonstration of comprehension of key concepts. A complete grading rubic with a breakdown of points will be provided on Sakai.
Final Exam (30%)
The final exam will be held in class at our appointed exam time (see below). The exam will consist of brief definition questions and a series of short essay questions. The definition questions will ask you to explain some core concept in your own words and provide a relevant example (e.g. what is an operating system?). For the essay questions, I will provide you with 5 questions, of which you will answer 3. As with the weekly paper assignments, there will be no 'right' answer to these questions; instead, I will be looking for you to think critically and analytically through some open-ended problem.
O - Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Star. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. http://search.lib.unc.edu/search?R=UNCb8696332
W - Imaging the Internet: A History and Forecast. http://www.elon.edu/predictions/
W - Kling, Rob. "What Is Social Informatics and Why Does It Matter?" D-Lib Magazine 5, no. 1 (1999). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html
C - Sproull, Lee S., and Sara Kiesler. "Beyond Efficiency." and "A Two-Level Perspective on Technology." In Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization, 1-17 and 19-35. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.
O - Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/lib/unc/detail.action?docID=3338844
W - "Babbage Difference Engine in Motion." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jiRgdaknJCg
W - Besser, Howard. "Digital Longevity." In Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access, edited by Maxine K. Sitts. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2000. http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard/Papers/sfs-longevity.html
Brown, Adrian. "Preservation." In Archiving Websites: A Practical Guide for Information Management Professionals, 82-126. London: Facet, 2006.
W - Computer History Museum. "Timeline of Computer History." http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/
W - Digital Preservation and Technology Timeline. Cornell University Library. http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/timeline/index.html
W - Hilton, Michael L. "How the Comptometer Works" 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbJpufimfdM
W - IT History Society. http://www.ithistory.org/
W - Kay, Russell. "35 Technologies that shaped the industry." Computerworld. September 30, 2002. http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/management/story/0,10801,74632,00.html
W- McDonough, Jerome. "Structural Metadata and the Social Limitation of Interoperability: A Sociotechnical View of XML and Digital Library Standards Development." Paper presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference, August 12-15, 2008. http://www.balisage.net/Proceedings/vol1/html/McDonough01/BalisageVol1-McDonough01.html
W - Metadata Basics. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. http://dublincore.org/metadata-basics/ [See especiaily the four levels of interoperability.]
W - Moore, Reagan. "Towards a Theory of Digital Preservation." International Journal of Digital Curation 1, No. 3 (2008). http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/viewFile/63/42
Shasha, Dennis Elliott, and Cathy A. Lazere. Out of Their Minds: The Lives and Discoveries of 15 Great Computer Scientists. New York: Copernicus, 1995.
C - Smith, Richard E. "A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture." Annals of the History of Computing 10, no. 4 (1989): 277-303.
R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Milestones in Computer Architecture, 13-26]
O - Tzitzikas, Yannis. "Dependency Management for the Preservation of Digital Information." In Database and Expert Systems Applications, 582-92. Berlin: Springer, 2007.
R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Chapter 2 (Computer Systems Organization): 51-134]
O - Bairavasundaram, Lakshmi N., Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau, Garth R. Goodson, and Bianca Schroeder. "An Analysis of Data Corruption in the Storage Stack." ACM Transactions on Storage 4, no. 3 (2008). http://doi.acm.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/10.1145/1416944.1416947
O - Balkestein, Marjan, and Heiko Tjalsma. "The ADA Approach: Retro-Archiving Data in an Academic Environment." Archival Science 7, no. 1 (2007): 89-105.
W - Brezinski, Dominique, and Tom Killalea. "Guidelines for Evidence Collection and Archiving." Request for Comments 3227. 2002. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3227.txt
W - Brown, Adrian. “Selecting Storage Media for Long-Term Preservation.” London: The National Archives. June 19, 2003. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/selecting_storage_media.pdf
W - Byers, Fred R. "Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs: A Guide for Librarians and Archivists." Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub121abst.html
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Crowley, Paul, and Dave Kleiman. CD and DVD Forensics. Rockland, MA: Syngress, 2007.
W - “Data Recovery.” Microsoft Help and Support. Jully 9, 2008. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/835840/EN-GB/
W - del Pozo, Nicholas, Douglas Elford, and David Pearson. “Mediapedia: Managing the Identification of Media Carriers.” In Proceedings of DigCCurr2009: Digital Curation: Practice, Promise, and Prospects, edited by Helen R. Tibbo, Carolyn Hank, Christopher A. Lee, and Rachael Clemens, 76-78. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, School of Information and Library Science, 2009. http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/proceedings-of-digccurr2009-digital-curation-practice-promise-and-prospects/4994819 [See also the conference demo presentation: http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr2009/3d-pearson.pdf]
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C - Dollar, Charles M. "Appendix 5 – Media Life Expectancy Disposition Charts." In Authentic Electronic Records: Strategies for Long-Term Access, 215-222. Chicago, IL: Cohasset Associates, 1999.
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W - Elford, Douglas, Nicholas Del Pozo, Snezana Mihajlovic, David Pearson, Gerard Clifton, and Colin Webb. "Media Matters: Developing Processes for Preserving Digital Objects on Physical Carriers at the National Library of Australia." Paper presented at the 74th IFLA General Conference and Council, Québec, Canada, August 10-14, 2008. http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/papers/084-Webb-en.pdf
W - Farley, Jonathan. "An Introduction to New Media." Public Record Office, 1999. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=B4BF35F8F75DF38121B1C3120F0B6196?doi=10.1.1.39.6616&rep=rep1&type=pdf
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W - Fontana, R., G. Decad, and S. Hetzler. "Technology Roadmap Comparisons for TAPE, HDD, and NAND Flash: Implications for Data Storage Applications." http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/meetings/documents/storage12/5-Fontana-StorageMediaDenstiyfoRNANDTAPE.pdf
W - Garfinkel, Simson L., and Abhi Shelat. "Remembrance of Data Passed: A Study of Disk Sanitization Practices." IEEE Security and Privacy 1 (2003): 17-27. http://www.computer.org/portal/cms_docs_security/security/v1n1/garfinkel.pdf
C, R - Hillis, W. Daniel. The Pattern on the Stone: The Simple Ideas That Make Computers Work. 1st ed. New York: Basic Books, 1998. [Nuts and Bolts (1-19); Universal Building Blocks (21-38)]
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W - John, Jeremy Leighton. "Adapting Existing Technologies for Digitally Archiving Personal Lives: Digital Forensics, Ancestral Computing, and Evolutionary Perspectives and Tools." Paper presented at iPRES 2008: The Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, UK, September 29-30, 2008. http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/presentations_day1/09_John.pdf
R - Jones, Keith J., Richard Bejtlich, and Curtis W. Rose. Real Digital Forensics: Computer Security and Incident Response. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2006. [See especially: "Acquiring a Forensic Duplication" (161-204), "Common Forensic Analysis Techniques" (207-246), "Forensic Duplication and Analysis of Personal Digital Assistants" (515-570), “Forensic Duplication of USB and Compact Flash Memory Devices” (571-576), "Forensic Analysis of USB and Compact Flash Memory Devices" (577-594).]
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W - Kuphaldt, Tony. R. "Principles of Digital Computing." Lessons In Electric Circuits. Volume 4. http://www.ibiblio.org/kuphaldt/electricCircuits/Digital/DIGI_16.html
W - Media Preservation (Blog). Media Preservation Initiative at Indiana University Bloomington. http://mediapreservation.wordpress.com/
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [125-127]
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C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Bit by Bit by Bit (69-85)]
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W - Schmid, Patrick, and Achim Roos. "RAID Recovery: The Data Knight Kroll Ontrack to the Rescue!" February 14, 2007. http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/02/14/raid_recovery/
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W - McGarva, Guy, Steve Morris, and Greg Janée. "Preserving Geospatial Data." DPC Technology Watch Series. Digital Preservation Coalition, 2009. http://www.dpconline.org/docs/reports/dpctw09-01.pdf
C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [On data types (167-169)]
W - Murray, Kate. "Shaking the Email Format Family Tree." The Signal. April 4, 2014. http://blogs.loc.gov/digitalpreservation/2014/04/shaking-the-email-format-family-tree/
W - Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. Washington, DC: Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0b1.pdf [Specifically: Information Definition (p.2-3 to 2-5); Logical Model for Archival Information up to section 22.214.171.124.2 (p.4-19 to 4-27)]
W - Pearson, David, and Colin Webb. "Defining File Format Obsolescence: A Risky Journey." International Journal of Digital Curation 3, no. 1 (2008): 89-106. http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/76
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W - van der Knijff, Johan. "PDF/A as a preferred, sustainable format for spreadsheets?" December 9, 2016. http://openpreservation.org/blog/2016/12/09/pdfa-as-a-preferred-sustainable-format-for-spreadsheets/
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W - Tyson, Jeff. "How Internet Infrastructure Works." HowStuffWorks. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet-infrastructure.htm/printable
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W - Brain, Marshall. "How Computer Viruses Work." HowStuffWorks. http://www.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm/printable
Briggs, David. The Secret Rules of Modern Living: Algorithms. BBC Four: 2015.
W - Cook, Timothy. "A Regular Expression Search Primer for Forensic Analysts." SANS Institute, 2012. http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/forensics/regular-expression-search-primer-forensic-analysts_33929
Eilam, Eldad. Reversing: Secrets of Reverse Engineering. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2005.
W - Gengenbach, Marty, et al. "OSS4EVA: Using Open-Source Tools to Fulfill Digital Preservation Requirements." Code4Lib Journal 34 (2016). http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/11940
R - Hillis, Daniel. Pattern on the Stone. Science Masters. Perseus, 1999. [Programming, 39-59]
R - Jones, Keith J., Richard Bejtlich, and Curtis W. Rose. "An Introduction to Perl." In Real Digital Forensics: Computer Security and Incident Response, 625-636. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2006.
Montfort, Nick, Patsy Baudoin, John Bell, Ian Bogost, Jeremy Douglass, Mark C. Marino, Michael Mateas, Casey Reas, Mark Sample, and Noah Vawter. 10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1)):GOTO 10. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013. [A series of essays about a one-line Commodore 64 BASIC program.]
R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Languages High and Low (349-362)]
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W - Besek, June M., Jessica Coates, Brian Fitzgerald, Wilma Mossink, William G. LeFurgy, Adrienne Muir, Mary Rasenberger, and Christopher D. Weston. “Digital Preservation and Copyright: An International Study.” International Journal of Digital Curation 2, no.3 (2008): 103-111. http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/viewFile/90/61
W - Bibliography - National Obsolescence Centre. http://www.nocweb.org/Documents/Bibliography.htm
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W - Cyberinfrastructure Technology Watch. http://www.ctwatch.org/
W - DigiCULT Technology Watch Reports. http://www.digicult.info/pages/techwatch.php
W - Digital Curation Centre Technology Watch Papers. http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/technology-watch/
W - Digital Preservation Coalition Technology Watch reports. http://www.dpconline.org/graphics/reports/
C - David, Paul A. "Some New Standards for the Economics of Standardization in the Information Age." In Economic Policy and Technological Performance, edited by Partha Dasgupta and Paul Stoneman, 206-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. [Source of orphan effect and "angry orphans."]
Hanseth, Ole, and Kalle Lyytinen. "Theorizing About the Design of Information Infrastructures: Design Kernel Theories and Principles." Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems 4, no. 12 (2004): 208-41.
W - JISC Technology and Standards Watch. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=techwatch_home
W - Lavoie, Brian, Lorraine Eakin, Amy Friedlander, Francine Berman, Paul Courant, Clifford Lynch, and Daniel Rubinfeld. "Sustaining the Digital Investment: Issues and Challenges of Economically Sustainable Digital Preservation." Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2008. http://brtf.sdsc.edu/biblio/BRTF_Interim_Report.pdf
W - Lyman, Peter, Hal R. Varian, Kirsten Swearingen, Peter Charles, Nathan Good, Laheem Lamar Jordan, and Joyojeet Pal. "How Much Information? 2003" http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/ [Executive Summary is at: http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/execsum.htm]
R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [204-215, 231-241 (Economics and Policy), 242-254 (economics of information)]
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W - Tuomi, Ilkka. "The Lives and Death of Moore's Law." First Monday 7, No. 11 (November 2002). http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_11/tuomi/index.html
R - Bantin, Philip C. “Transaction Processing Systems Constructed on the Relational Database Model.” In Understanding Data and Information Systems for Recordkeeping, 65-128. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman, 2008.
W - Being Fluent with Technology. Washington, DC: National Research Council, 1999. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030906399X [See Intellectual Capabilities for FITness (elaborated on p.21-27)]
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C - Breakfield, Charles V., and Roxanne E. Burkey. "The Migration Process." In Managing Systems Migrations and Upgrades: Demystifying the Technology Puzzle, 145-201. Amsterdam: Digital Press, 2002.
W - Conway, Paul. "Preservation in the Digital World." Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1996. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/conway2/
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W - "DIRKS [Designing and Implementing Recordkeeping Systems]: A Strategic Approach to Managing Business Information." National Archives of Australia, 2003. http://www.naa.gov.au/records-management/publications/DIRKS-manual.aspx
W - Glick, Kevin, and Eliot Wilczek. "Ingest Guide." Tufts University and Yale University, 2006. http://dca.lib.tufts.edu/features/nhprc/reports/ingest/index.html
W - Glick, Kevin, and Eliot Wilczek. "Maintain Guide." Tufts University and Yale University, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10427/1286
W - Green, Ann, Stuart Macdonald, and Robin Rice. "Policy-Making for Research Data in Repositories: A Guide." Edinburgh, UK: EDINA and University Data Library, University of Edinburgh, 2009. http://www.disc-uk.org/docs/guide.pdf
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Muirhead, Graeme, ed. Planning and Implementing Successful System Migrations. London: Library Association Pub., 1997.
Sieman, Barbara, Raymond Van Diessen, and Christopher A. Lee. “Component Business Model for Digital Repositories.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Digital Preservation (iPres), London, England, September 29-30, 2008.
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C - Langlois, Richard N., and Paul L. Robertson. "Networks and Innovation in a Modular System: Lessons from the Microcomputer and Stereo Component Industries." Research Policy 21, no. 4 (1992): 297-313.
W - Lee, Cal. "A Talk on Digital Preservation." May 31, 2007. Information in Life Series. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHy9CW_vMp4
R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Modularity and Layering (157-189); Standardization (215-223); Application Architecture (293-324)] [215-223 and 293-324 not in main exerpt file in Sakai]
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Rajasekar, Arcot, Michael Wan, Reagan Moore, Wayne Schroeder, Sheau-Yen Chen, Lucas Gilbert, Chien-Yi Hou, Christopher A. Lee, Richard Marciano, Paul Tooby, Antoine de Torcy, and Bing Zhu. iRODS Primer: integrated Rule-Oriented Data System. San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool, 2010.
O - Reich, Victoria, and David Rosenthal. "Distributed Digital Preservation: Private LOCKSS Networks as Business, Social, and Technical Frameworks." Library Trends 57, no. 3 (2009): 461-75.
W - RenaissanceWeb - http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/projects/renaissance/RenaissanceWeb/
W - Rosenthal, David S. H., Thomas Lipkis, Thomas S. Robertson, and Seth Morabito. "Transparent Format Migration of Preserved Web Content." D-Lib Magazine 11, no. 1 (2005).
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Umar, Amjad. Application (Re)Engineering: Building Web-Based Applications and Dealing with Legacies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
W - West, Joel. "The Economic Realities of Open Standards: Black, White, and Many Shades of Gray." In Standards and Public Policy, edited by Shane M. Greenstein and Victor Stango, 87-121. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.joelwest.org/Papers/West2006-WP.pdf
I would like to express special thanks to Cal Lee for sharing resources and course materials from previous iterations of this course. The present syllabus is heavily based on his own syllabi.